Monday, May 29, 2017


Istanbul - Turkey

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The Golden Horn Metro Bridge (Turkish: Haliç Metro Köprüsü) is a cable-stayed bridge along the M2 line of the Istanbul Metro, spanning the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. It connects the Beyoğlu and Fatih districts on the European side of Istanbul, and is located between the Galata Bridge and Atatürk Bridge, approximately 200 m (660 ft) east of the latter. It is the fourth bridge across the Golden Horn and entered service on February 15, 2014. The bridge enables a direct connection between the Hacıosman Metro Station in the Sarıyer district (at the northern end of the M2 line), with the Yenikapı transport hub in the Fatih district (at the southern end of the M2 line.)

The appearance of the bridge project in the general agenda goes back to 1952. After the approval of the metro line by the city's Monument Protection Board and the completion of the tunnels relating to the metro line, a construction bid for the metro bridge spanning the Golden Horn was published by the Metropolitan Municipality. By 2005, a total of 21 proposals were submitted to the Monument Protection Board; however, none were found to be sufficiently in harmony with the city's skyline.

A successful design, by architect Hakan Kıran, was controversial from the very beginning. In November 2009, the tower height was reduced from the initially projected 82 m (269 ft) to 65 m (213 ft) because the original height threatened the removal of Istanbul from the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites. The top level of cables was changed from 63 to 55 m (207 to 180 ft), and later in July 2011, it was further lowered to 47 m (154 ft). This revised design was approved in February 2012.

The bridge's conceptual design was carried out by French engineer and bridge specialist Michel Virlogeux, who also designed the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Third Bosphorus Bridge) currently under construction at the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul. Turkish architect Hakan Kıran was responsible for the architectural design and the construction supervision. Wiecon Consulting Engineers & Architects did the structural engineering work for the bridge.

It was built by a consortium of the Italian Astaldi SpA and the Turkish Gülermak Ağır Sanayi İnşaat ve Taahhüt A.Ş. Construction began on January 2, 2009, and was initially planned to be completed within 600 days. The construction time was extended, and the bridge was completed on January 9, 2013. Test runs of the metro line on the bridge began the next day, and the bridge went into service on 15 February 2014. Budgeted cost of the construction was €146.7 million.

Due to the historical character of the surroundings, the project underwent revisions relating to the alignment of the metro line. The discovery of a Byzantine-era vault on the Unkapanı bank during excavation works for pier foundations forced a redesign of the project. The design of the swing bridge operator's command building had to be revised when the wall of a Byzantine-era basilica and a graveyard on the same bank came to light.

The cable-stayed bridge has an overall length of 936 m (3,071 ft) between Azapkapı (Beyoğlu) and Unkapanı (Fatih), and a span of 460 m (1,510 ft) over water. The longest span between the two towers is 180 m (590 ft). It is flanked by viaducts at both sides, which connect the bridge with the metro tunnels on the opposite banks of the Golden Horn. Nine cables are connected to each side of the two towers in harp-design starting at a height of 47 m (154 ft).

To restrain the soft bedrock, dozens of steel pipe piles with diameters of 1,800 mm (71 in) and 2,500 mm (98 in), supplied from Europe, were driven using a hydraulic hammer more than 30 m (98 ft) deep into ground. The two steel supporting towers are 65 m (213 ft) high, Each resting on a nine-pile group while for the side supports four-pile or five-pile groups are built.

The 12.6 m (41 ft) wide bridge carries two metro railway tracks in the middle and a 4.4 m (14 ft) wide sidewalk in each direction at a height of 13 m (43 ft) above sea level. The deck is a 4.45 m (14.6 ft) high box girder.

On the Unkapanı side, a 120 m (390 ft) long swing bridge, essentially a cantilever structure, is to allow passage for large ships. It has 50 m (160 ft) and 70 m (230 ft) long spans, which rest on a central pier. Controlled from a room on a platform between the bridge and the shoreline, the swing bridge turns in right angle about the vertical axis after lifting, and provides about 40 m (130 ft) wide free clearance within four to six minutes.

It is planned that the swing bridge will be open once a week between the early hours of 1:00 and 5:00 in the summer time, and twice a week during these hours in the winter months. The gray color of the bridge was determined after extensive photographic studies of the surroundings.

A metro station with 180 m (590 ft) long platform, suitable for holding an 8-car train, is situated in the middle of the bridge. The station extends across the full length of the main span, and is capped with a 90 m (300 ft) long canopy. The color of the metro station on the bridge is light brown. It is expected that the metro line over the bridge will transport around one million passengers daily.


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Büyükçekmece - Istanbul - Turkey

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This bridge is on the Büyükçekmece Lake, Kültürpark about 40 km from Istanbul, at the juncture of Büyükçekmece lake and Marmara Sea on the Istanbul-Edirne road. The bridge connects Büyükçekmece to the Mimarsinan Township.

Spanning 636 meters over the natural channel that connects the Büyükçekmece Lake with the Sea of Marmara to the south, the bridge was built beginning 1563 by Süleyman I (Kanuni Sultan Süleyman or Süleyman the Magnificent, 1520-1566) during his Szigetvar campaign. Upon his death, Selim II ordered the completion of the bridge and it was subsequently used during the return of the Army from the Expedition.

Sinan describes this bridge as one of his most favorite works. Perhaps this explains why the Büyükçekmece Bridge is the only one of his works that carries Sinan’s personal signature. Unfortunately, the original signature was stolen and has been substituted by a replica.

A stone bridge built by the Romans and restored by Mehmed II allowed passage further north prior to the construction of the current bridge by head-architect Sinan. Sinan also designed a small complex on the eastern bank of the channel for Sokullu Mehmed Paşa that consists of a fountain (çeşme), caravanserai (kervansaray) and a small mosque (mescit) known as Sokullu Mehmed Paşa Mescidi or Köprübaşı (foot of the bridge) Mosque. The bridge and the complex were completed a year into the rule of Sultan Süleyman's successor, Sultan Selim II (1566-1574).

The structure also known as the Büyükçekmece Bridge consists of four sections that individually ascend and descend carried on arches, resting on artificial islands placed in between. From east to west, the first two sections have seven arches each, followed by a five and a nine-arched section, with four-centered arches varying from 4.5 to 11.9 meters in width.

After choosing firm ground closer to the seabed to span the channel, Sinan laid hexagonal artificial islands with thick retaining walls for during low tide. Lead was poured into caissons dug into the seabed prior to filling the foundations to create a stronger foundation.

The bridge carries a two-lane cobblestone road that is protected with shallow stone barriers on either side. The first section at the eastern end has two stone balconies at its apex that project over the river carried on stone braces. The forth section, to the west, has two inscription panels facing each other on either side of the road. Composed in Arabic, the southern panel offers praise to Süleyman I and Selim II and gives the date of construction.

Mimar Sinan, who is referred to as Yusuf bin Abdullah in this panel, also has a signature to its side displaying this alternative name that is only mentioned in an early version of his monograph, Tezkiret-ül Ebniye. The northern panel is in Turkish and announces the completion of the bridge by Sultan Selim II.

A highway bridge was built to the south of the Sultan Süleyman Bridge in 1950 to accommodate intercity traffic. The historic bridge was restored in 1970 by the Turkish Highways Administration and is closed to traffic.


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Friday, May 26, 2017


Unkapanı - Azapkapı, İstanbul - Turkey

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Atatürk Bridge, alternatively known as the Unkapanı Bridge, is a highway bridge on the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. It is named after Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey.

It was originally completed in 1836 with the name Hayratiye Bridge, which connected the quarters of Unkapanı and Azapkapı. The construction of the Hayratiye Bridge was ordered by the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II and supervised by Ahmed Fevzi Pasha, the Deputy Admiral of the Ottoman Fleet, at the Imperial Naval Arsenal (Tersane-i Amire) on the Golden Horn. The opening was personally made by Sultan Mahmud II in 1836, who crossed the bridge on his horse. This original bridge was circa 400 meters long and 10 meters wide, and was built as a bascule bridge for allowing large ships to pass.

The original name of the bridge, which was built on 3rd of September, 1836 over the Golden Horn, is Hayratiye (charity) because it was free of charge to use. The timber bridge, repaired between 1839 and 1840, was thought unsafe, and a new one was needed. When the bridge was charged for animals and carts for the construction of new a bridge, and the name was changed to Mahmudiye. The 504 m length bridge, built by French firm Forges and Chantiers de la Mediterranee in September 1872, was demolished in the storm of February 11, 1936.

In 1875 it was replaced by a second bridge, made of iron and constructed by a French company at the price of 135,000 Ottoman gold liras. It was 480 meters long and 18 meters wide, and remained in service between 1875 and 1912, when it was demolished due to reaching the end of its service life.

In 1912, the nearby Third Galata Bridge was disassembled in pieces and was re-erected at the site of the demolished Hayratiye Bridge, becoming the third bridge on this site. This bridge was used until 1936, when it was damaged by a storm.

The new bridge, designed by French Highways and Bridges Supervisor M. Pigeaud, opened for service on the 29th of October, 1939. The bridge is carried by 24 steel pontoons and is 477 m in length and 25 m in width. The current (fourth) bridge on this site was constructed between 1936 and 1940, and entered service in 1940 with the name Atatürk Bridge.

The Unkapanı Bridge, also known as Atatürk Bridge, was constructed in 1939 by a French firm. The bridges over the Golden Horn are still said to be the world's longest pontoon bridges. However, pontoons are considered to hinder the flow of water from the Golden Horn into the Sea of Marmara.

Historicly, on the site of the present Unkapanı Ataturk Bridge, there was a bridge called the “Jewish Bridge” (Yahudi Köprüsü) made of wooden planks. The purpose of building a bridge across the Golden Horn was to save citizens from paying a boat fee. For this reason, the bridge was known as the “Pious Deed  Bridge” (Hayrat Köprüsü). The name of the bridge was changed to “Atatürk Bridge” in 1935. Its wooden parquet floor was paved to asphalt in the repair in 1950.


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Ayvansaray - Halıcıoğlu, Istanbul - Turkey

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Haliç Bridge, which literally means the Estuary Bridge, is a highway bridge on the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. It connects the neighbourhoods of Ayvansaray in the south and Halıcıoğlu in the north. The O-1 highway passes through the Haliç Bridge.

It was constructed between 1971 and 1974, and entered service on 10 September 1974. The engineering firms which undertook the construction works were IHI Corporation of Japan and Julius Berger-Bauboag AG of Germany.

The bridge has a length of 995 meters, width of 32 meters, and height of 22 meters above sea level.


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Istanbul - Turkey

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The Galata Bridge (in Turkish Galata Köprüsü) is a bridge that spans the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. From the end of the 19th century in particular, the bridge has featured in Turkish literature, theater, poetry and novels.

Dimensions : Main span 80 m, Total length 465 m, Deck width 42 m

The first bridge on the Golden Horn which was built by Justinian the Great can be seen near the Theodosian Land Walls at the western end of the city in this rendering of old Constantinople. The oldest recorded bridge over the Golden Horn in Istanbul was built during the reign of Justinian the Great in the 6th century close to the area near the Theodosian Land Walls at the western end of the city. In 1453, during the Fall of Constantinople, the Turks assembled a mobile bridge by putting their ships next to each other and used it for transporting their troops from one side of the Golden Horn to the other.

In the years 1502-1503 plans to construct the first bridge in the current location were discussed. Sultan Bayezid II solicited a design and Leonardo da Vinci, utilizing three well-known geometrical principles, the pressed-bow, parabolic curve and keystone arch, created an unprecedented single span 240 m long and 24 m wide bridge for the Golden Horn, which would become the longest bridge in the world of that period if constructed. However, the ambitious design did not meet with the Sultan's approval. Another Italian artist, Michelangelo was also invited to design a bridge for Istanbul. Michelangelo rejected the proposal, and the idea of building a bridge across the Golden Horn was shelved until the 19th century.

A smaller scale version of Leonardo da Vinci's Golden Horn Bridge was brought to life in 2001 near Oslo, Norway by the contemporary artist Vebjørn Sand, the first civil engineering project based on a Leonardo da Vinci sketch to be constructed. The Leonardo Bridge Project hopes to build the design as a practical footbridge around the world, including the Golden Horn in Istanbul, using local materials and collaborating with local artisans as a global public art project. The Wall Street Journal referred to the Project as a "...logo for the nations." (WSJ, Nov. 5-6, 2005)

Hayratiye Bridge (Cisr-i Atik)In the early 19th century Mahmud II (1808-1839) had a bridge built at some distance up the waterway between Azapkapi and Unkapanı. This bridge, known as the Hayratiye (Benefaction in English), was opened on September 3, 1836. The project was carried out by Deputy Lord High Admiral Fevzi Ahmet Paşa using the workers and facilities of the naval arsenal. According to the History of Lütfi, this bridge was built on linked pontoons and was around 500 to 540 m long.

Cisr-i Cedid
The first Galata Bridge at the mouth of the waterway was constructed in 1845 by Valide Sultan, the mother of Sultan Abdülmecid (1839-1861) and used for 18 years. It was known as the Cisr-i Cedid or New Bridge to distinguish it from the earlier bridge further up the Golden Horn, which became known as the Cisr-i Atik or Old Bridge.

On the Karaköy side of the bridge, there was an inscription as a couplet by poet Şinasi saying that the New Bridge was built by Abdülmecid Han. First to pass over the bridge was Sultan Abdülmecid, and the first to pass below it was the French captain Magnan in his ship the Cygne.

For the first three days crossing the bridge was free, after which a toll known as mürüriye was paid to the Naval Ministry. Toll collecting started on November 25, 1845. Toll was collected until May 31, 1930 by officials in white uniform standing on both ends of the bridge. Free : military and law enforcement personnel, fire fighters on duty, clergy.

The second bridge
This bridge was replaced by a second wooden bridge in 1863, built by Ethem Pertev Paşa on the orders of Sultan Abdülaziz (1861-1876) in readiness for the visit of Napoleon III to Istanbul.

The third bridge
In 1870 a contract was signed with a French company, Forges et Chantiers de la Mediteranée for construction of a third bridge, but the outbreak of war between France and Germany delayed the project, which was given instead to a British firm G. Wells in 1872. This bridge, completed in 1875, was 480 m long and 14 m wide and rested on 24 pontoons. It was built at a cost of 105,000 gold liras. This was used until 1912, when it was pulled upstream to replace the now genuinely old Cisr-i Atik Bridge.

The fourth bridge
The fourth Galata Bridge was built in 1912 by the German firm MAN AG for 350,000 gold liras. This floating bridge was 466 m long and 25 m wide. It is the bridge still familiar to many people today that was badly damaged in a fire in 1992 and towed up the Golden Horn to make way for the modern bridge now in use.

Detail of the break in the overhead lines for the trams between one bascule (left) and the fixed part of the bridge. The Süleymaniye Mosque is in the background. The fifth Galata bridge was built by the Turkish construction company STFA just a few meters away from the previous bridge, between Karaköy and Eminönü, and completed in December 1994. It was designed and supervised by GAMB (Göncer Ayalp Engineering Company).

It is a bascule bridge, which is 490 m long with a main span of 80 m. The deck of the bridge is 42 m wide and has three vehicular lanes and one walkway in each direction. It has also recently had tram tracks added to it, allowing the Istanbul Tram to run from Zeytinburnu in the suburbs near Atatürk International Airport to Kabataş, a few blocks before Dolmabahçe Palace. This bridge, Trowse Bridge in Norwich, and a number of rail bridges in the United States may be the only movable bridges in the world which also carry electrified rail tracks.

It is a common argument that the bridge was not designed for this modification, which was added later as a necessity. Laymen had to make inspections of the bridge due to several engineering problems, which caused a setback of many years because of the discord between the supervisor and the contractor. The rest of the bridge including the market area in the first floor opened to common use in 2003.

The Galata Bridge was a symbolic link between the traditional city of Istanbul proper, site of the imperial palace and principal religious and secular institutions of the empire, and the districts of Galata, Beyoğlu, Şişli and Harbiye where a large proportion of the inhabitants were non-Muslims and where foreign merchants and diplomats lived and worked. In this respect the bridge bonded these two distinctive cultures. As Peyami Safa wrote in his novel, Fatih-Harbiye, a person who went from Fatih to Harbiye via the bridge set foot in a different civilization and different culture. Apart from its place in fiction, the romantic appearance of the Galata Bridge made it the subject of many paintings and engravings.

All daily city tours in Istanbul include this bridge as it is the passageway to the Old City. Panoramic view of the Golden Horn in Istanbul, as seen from the Galata Tower. The Galata Bridge can be seen in the center of the picture. The Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) where the Topkapı Palace is located is seen at the left tip of the historic peninsula; followed by (left to right) the Hagia Sophia, the Sultan Ahmed (Blue) Mosque, the Yeni (New) Mosque near the Galata Bridge, the Beyazıt Tower rising high in the background, and the Süleymaniye (Süleyman the Magnificent) Mosque at far right, among others.

The Sea of Marmara and the Princes' Islands are seen in the background, on the horizon. At the extreme left of the picture, the district of Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) on the Asian side of the city can be seen.


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Tuesday, May 23, 2017


Bosphorus, İstanbul - Turkey

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The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Turkish: Yavuz Sultan Selim Köprüsü), initially named the Third Bosphorus Bridge, is a project to construct a bridge for rail and motor vehicle transit over the Bosphorus, north of two existing bridges in Istanbul, Turkey.

The bridge will be situated between Garipçe in Sarıyer on the European side and Poyrazköy in Beykoz on the Asian side. The foundation stone laying ceremony was held on 29 May 2013.

The bridge is part of the projected 260 km (160 mi) long Northern Marmara Motorway (Turkish: Kuzey Marmara Otoyolu), which will bypass urban areas of Istanbul in the north connecting Kınalı, Silivri in the west and Paşaköy, Hendek in the east. The 58.4 m (192 ft) wide bridge will be 2,164 m (7,100 ft) in length with a main span of 1,408 m (4,619 ft). The main span of the bridge will be eighth-longest among suspension bridges in the world.

Designed by French engineer Michel Virlogeux and by Jean-François Klein from T-ingénierie (a Geneva-based company), the bridge will be a combined road-rail bridge. It will carry four motorway lanes and one railway line in each direction. The construction is being carried out by a consortium of the Turkish company İçtaş and the Italian company Astaldi that won the bid on 30 May 2012.

The budgeted cost of the bridge's construction is Turkish lira 4.5 billion (approximately US$2.5 billion as of March 2013). The construction was originally expected to be completed in 36 months with the opening date scheduled for the end of 2015. On 29 May 2013, Prime Minister Erdoğan directed the construction management team to finish the construction within 24 months, and projected an opening date for May 29, 2015.

When completed, the Third Bosphorus Bridge will be the longest combined motorway/railway bridge in the world and the world's eighth-longest suspension bridge. The bridge toll is set to be US$3.00 (approximately Turkish lira 6.70 as of February 2014) between the motorway exits Odayeri and Paşaköy. It is expected that at least 135,000 vehicles will use the bridge daily in each direction.

Minister of Transport and Communication stated that of the total area to be nationalised for the bridge project, 9.57% is currently private property, 75.24% is forested land, and the remaining 15.19% is already state-owned land.

The name of the bridge was announced by President Abdullah Gül at the ground-breaking ceremony as the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, in honor of Ottoman Sultan Selim I (c. 1470–1520), who expanded the Ottoman Empire into the Middle East and North Africa in 1514-1517 and obtained the title of Caliph of Islam for the Ottoman dynasty after his conquest of Egypt in 1517.


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Bosphorus, İstanbul - Turkey

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The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge (in Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet Köprüsü, F.S.M. Köprüsü or 2. Köprü), is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi). When completed in 1988 it had the 6th longest suspension bridge span in the world; in 2012 it is 17th.

The bridge is named after the 15th century Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, who took Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 and ended the Byzantine Empire. It carries the European route E80, Asian Highway 1 and Otoyol 2 highways.

The bridge is situated between Hisarüstü (European side) and Kavacık (Asian side). It is a gravity-anchored suspension bridge with steel pylons and vertical hangers. The aerodynamic deck is hanging on double vertical steel cables. It is 1,510 m long with a deck width of 39 m. The distance between the towers (main span) is 1,090 m and their height over road level is 105 m. The clearance of the bridge from sea level is 64 m.

The bridge was designed by Freeman Fox and Partners and Botek Bosphorus Technical Consulting Corp., who had previously also designed the Bosphorus Bridge. An international consortium of three Japanese companies (including IHI Corporation and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries), one Italian (Impregilo) and one Turkish company (STFA) carried out the construction works.

The bridge was completed on July 3, 1988 and opened by Prime Minister Turgut Özal who drove his official car by himself as the first to pass. The cost of the bridge amounted to USD 130 million.

The bridge is on the Trans-European Motorway between Edirne and Ankara. The highway bridge has four lanes for vehicular traffic plus one emergency lane in each direction. On weekday mornings, commuter traffic flows mostly westbound to the European part, so five of the eight lanes run westbound and only three eastbound.

Conversely, on weekday evenings, five lanes are dedicated to eastbound traffic and three lanes only to westbound. No pedestrians are allowed to use the bridge. Nowadays, around 150,000 vehicles are passing daily in both directions, almost 65% being automobiles.

Toll collection
Fatih Sultan Mehmet is a toll bridge, but payment is required from only the vehicles passing from Europe to Asia (as in the First Bosphorus Bridge, no payment is required while passing from Asia to Europe.) Since April 2008, cash payments are no longer accepted, having been replaced by a remote payment system.

In addition to OGS the contactless smart card KGS system is in use. An OGS device or KGS card can be obtained at various stations before the toll plaza of highways and bridges.


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Bosphorus, İstanbul - Turkey

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The 15 July Martyrs Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge (Turkish: Boğaziçi Köprüsü or 1. Boğaziçi Köprüsü) is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi). The bridge is located between Ortaköy (European side) and Beylerbeyi (Asian side). It is a gravity anchored suspension bridge with steel pylons and inclined hangers.

The aerodynamic deck is hanging on zigzag steel cables. It is 1,510 m long with a deck width of 39 m. The distance between the towers (main span) is 1,074 m (World rank: 15th) and their height over road level is 105 m. The clearance of the bridge from sea level is 64 m. It was the 4th longest suspension bridge span in the world when completed in 1973, and the longest outside the United States of America.

The decision to build a bridge across the Bosphorus was taken in 1957 by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. For the structural engineering work, a contract was signed with the British firm Freeman Fox and Partners in 1968. The bridge was designed by the famous British civil engineer Sir Gilbert Roberts who also designed the Humber Bridge, Severn Bridge, Forth Road Bridge, Auckland Harbour Bridge and the Volta River Bridge.

The construction started in February 1970, the ceremonies were attended by President Cevdet Sunay and Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel. The construction was carried out by the Turkish firm Enka Construction & Industry Co. along with the co-contractors Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Co. Ltd. (England) and Hochtief AG (Germany). 35 engineers and 400 men worked on the project.

It was completed on October 30, 1973, one day after the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Republic of Turkey, and opened by President Fahri Korutürk and Prime Minister Naim Talu. Ernest Frederick, a civil engineer working for the US government and stationed in Turkey at the time, was the first American to cross the bridge. American comedian and Ambassador for UNICEF Danny Kaye, dressed like a clown, followed him with a pack of Turkish children. As a huge crowd of people started to run after them, the bridge began to vibrate, and the crowd had to be held back to avoid any damage. The cost of the bridge amounted to USD 200 million.

The highway bridge has a total width of eight lanes. Each direction has three lanes for vehicular traffic plus one emergency lane and one sidewalk. On weekday mornings, commuter traffic flows mostly westbound to the European part, so four of the six lanes run westbound and only two eastbound. Conversely, on weekday evenings, four lanes are dedicated to eastbound traffic and two lanes only to westbound. In the first four years, pedestrians could walk over the bridge, reaching it with elevators inside the towers on both sides.

No pedestrians or commercial vehicles like trucks are allowed to use the bridge today. Nowadays, around 180,000 vehicles pass daily in both directions, almost 85% being automobiles. On December 29, 1997, the one-billionth vehicle passed the bridge. Fully loaded, the bridge sags about 90 cm in the middle of the span.

Other uses
The Intercontinental Istanbul Eurasia Marathon, organized annually in October, starts from the Anatolian part of Istanbul, crosses the Bosphorus on the bridge and ends in the European part during which the bridge is closed to the vehicular traffic. Visitors to Istanbul in October can sign up for the 'fun run' at many points round the city and take the opportunity to cross the bridge by foot - many take picnics to enjoy the view. On a merrier point of view, it is a popular belief that a wish made while going under the bridge will come true.

On May 15, 2005 at 7.00 local time, U.S. tennis star Venus Williams played a show game with Turkish standout İpek Şenoğlu on the bridge, the first tennis match ever to be played on two continents. The event was organized as a promotion ahead of the 2005 WTA’s Istanbul Cup and lasted five minutes only on the north side of the bridge. After the exhibition, they both threw a tennis ball into the Bosphorus.

On July 17, 2005 at 10:30 local time, British Formula One driver David Coulthard drove his Red Bull racing car on the bridge first from the European side to the Asian side, and then turning with a spectacular power slide at the toll plaza back to the European side for show. He parked his car in the garden of Dolmabahçe Palace where his ride had started.

During his ride to the Turkish Grand Prix at Istanbul Racing Circuit on August 21, 2005, David Coulthard was picked up by the automatic surveillance system and charged with a fine of 20 Euro when he passed through the toll booths without payment, as only the president, traffic police and emergency workers have the right to cross the bridge for nothing. His team accepted to pay for him. Since April 23, 2007, a fully computerized LED lighting system of changing colours illuminates the bridge at night.

On 15 July 2016, the bridge was blocked by a faction of the Turkish Armed Forces during a coup attempt.[19] The soldiers involved surrendered to police the next day. On 25 July 2016, prime minister Binali Yıldırım announced that the bridge would be renamed as the 15 Temmuz Şehitler Köprüsü (July 15 Martyrs Bridge).


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Wednesday, May 17, 2017


Kadıköy - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 40°59'39.2"N 29°01'34.3"E / 40.994222, 29.026194

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The Aziziye Hamam was built during the rule of the Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz in 1860. This historical structure is a classic example of 19th century Ottoman architectural style. It is designed as a double bath, consisting of two identical buildings, one being for women and the other for men, with seperate entrances.

Traditionally, Aziziye Hamam has hot, cool and steam rooms, the navel stone, dressing and resting rooms. Bath floors are tiled with Turkish marbles which has good heat distribution qualities. The boiler room was untouched, as opposed to most of the Turkish baths build during later, runs on firewood which changes the overall experience. The Aziziye Hamam is a classic example of 19th century Ottoman style. It was built in 1860 and designed as a double bath, one for men and the other for women.

The exterior is nothing to write home about but do not let this put you off as the inside of the hamam is to die for. Look out for the gorgeous tiling and the cleanliness of the bath. You need bring nothing with you as everything is provided. You are scrubbed by your own sex, so no discomfort needs be felt. All you need to worry about is how amazing you will feel afterwards.

The bathroom and sauna is located on the first floor, you pass through the shower and massage compartment and you wash yourself in the middle section. You then move onto the sauna area to soak your pores for around 10-15 minutes depending on how long you can last in the sauna! Once you’re out you wash yourself again to remove sweat and dead skin. Your masseuse will come and find out and then take you back to the first section to complete your scrub and massage.

This is the place to go to experience a traditional Turkish hamam, one that you’ll find the locals frequenting. As with everything in Turkey, there is no rushing you out of the door as soon as your experience is over, you are welcome to stay and relax and soak up the history. In fact linger and pour yourself with hot and cold water to your hearts content.


WEB SITE : Aziziye Hamamı

E-Mail :
Phone : +90 212 349 1465 / +90 212 449 0613

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Sultanahmet, Fatih - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'30.0"N 28°58'32.0"E / 41.008333, 28.975556

The Historical Sultanahmet Hamamı was built in the 17 th century as a hamam. The hamam is tastefully renovated without changing the architectural specialities. Each top of the hamam was built in a different style.

Our services include : Washing, peeling, soup massage, locked clothes changing cabin, towel (peştemal), slippers (takunya)

Our hamam has two sections. First section is for the families both ladies and men where they can get inside and enjoy our hamam. The second one is only for the ladies. Our masseurs (tellaks) are, trined and proffesional people. We have male and female masseurs.


WEB SITE : Sultanahmet Hamamı

E-mail :
Phone : +90 212 513 7204

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Aksaray, Fatih - İstanbul Turkey

GPS : 41°00'49.5"N 28°56'55.5"E / 41.013750, 28.948750

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The Turkish bath located in Sofular Neighborhood derives its name from Sofular Mosque. The hamam is located where Sofular Avenue and Molla Hüsrev Avenue cross. Across the Turkish bath are Molla Hüsrev Mosque and Sofular Mosque while Bıçakcı Alaeddin Mosque is a little at the back. The Turkish bath which is still active is double and endowed by Sultan Bayezid II.

Sultan Bayezid II had this place constructed to provide an income for the kulliye in Edirne. In the middle of glasshouse there are a fountain pool and two flat locker rooms, and a wooden torch on the roof. There are three boxes for washing glove and a warm private room on the right of the warm room.

The top of the private rooms were covered with a dome. The top of the warm room is vaulted roof. There is one bench on the right and left of the hot room and the top of this place is covered with glass arch. The sides of the domes of the private rooms are shaped and the top of the sofa are vaulted roof.

Sofular Hamam is a brilliant Turkish bath which has octagonal navel stone under the big dome in the middle. The original form of the Turkish bath burnt out in the fire in Cibali in 1833.


WEB SITE : Sofular Hamamı

E-mail :
Phone : +90 212 521 3759 / +90 212 521 7050

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Saturday, May 13, 2017

AĞA HAMAMI since 1454

Çukurcuma, Beyoğlu - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'59.1"N 28°58'54.9"E / 41.033083, 28.981917

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The Historical Ağa hamamı (turkish bath) was constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. Ağa Turkish bath was used as a private hamam by Mehmed the Conqueror and his sons. At that time, Beyoglu District was not a settlement area and the Padishahs would come to Beyoglu District for hunting. Mehmed the Conqueror constructed this building as a hunting house in 1454.

Ağa hamamı was designed as a hamam below the two flats above. It underwent a large-scale renovation in 1844 by Sultan Abdülmecid. It was used by the Sultans and their sons until the final years of the Ottoman Empire.

With the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Ottoman Empire ended. In those days a Armenian woman bought the Ağa hamamı (turkish bath) and it first opened to public. She decided sold the Ağa hamamı to Huseyin Yilmaz. Due to his old age, Huseyin Yilmaz sold it to his nephew Ali Yilmaz in May 1974 after thirty four years of operation. The last renovation was in 1986 by Ali Yilmaz. It serves only tourists mixed hamam in istanbul for over ten years.

It is a three-floor building sitting on a 650 sqm of land. The first two floors were built as the house and the entrance floor as the Ağa Hamamı. The exterior and the top of hammam (a skylight dome with round frames) were designed to receive the daylight from sunrise to sunset.

The hammam has a 250 sqm section at the back to heat it. In those years this section was named "kulhan". This building was influenced by the classic era that began at the end of the 15th century. Many buildings that were constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror right after the Conquest of Constantinople followed this trend.

The internal structure consists of sections called "soyunmalık, ılıklık and sıcaklık" (changing rooms and the sections for warming up and heating up respectively). Apart from these sections, the installations section takes up a huge room. This section consists of the water reservoir, kulhan and cehennemlik (literally "hell room"). The most voluminous spaces in Ağa Hamamı are usually the changing rooms. The house and the hammam have very high ceilings which extend up to 3.5 meters. High ceilings are the most prominent features of historical buildings.

Cold Halvet (Private Small Room)
It is the first entrance section of the hamam, it is not a very hot section. It is the section used to cool off when it becomes uncomfortably hot for you.

Hot Section (Inside Of Hamam) And Center Stone
This is the section mainly used by tourists. It is the bathing and sweating section. It contains the center stone which is heated from below. You can lie on it and relax.

Hot Halvet
Consists of two small rooms. Only used for bathing. Each room has three kurnas (marble tubs in which hot and cold water from two taps are mixed). It is one of the hottest sections.

Külhan (Furnace)
This is the section from which the hamam is heated. The Ağa hamam has been heated with traditional methods for years. It is heated by wood fire. Woods are lit in the kulhan section and the heat circulates under the hamam. While many hamams in Istanbul are heated with natural gas, the Ağa hamam is heated by wood fire, which allows experiencing a privilege in heat. Heat provided by natural gas can never be the same as that of wood fire.

Welcome to Ağa hamamı. Choose the pack you desire at the entrance, go into the room exclusively for you, wrap around your pestemal, lock up your room and go let yourself enjoy the comfort on marble.

Kese (special bath glove)
It is a cleaning method which has been used since the initial years of Ottoman Empire. Your skin gets softer as the result of perspiration in the hamam, with the help of a kese dead skin is removed and skin pores are opened.

Foam Bath
It is a method used to clean the body following the kese process. Leave yourself into the hands of the masseur/masseuse and feel the comfort. Experiencing this feeling at the Aga hamam is a privilege.

Oil Massage
Oil massage is a type of massage known worldwide. It was first applied by the Chinese three thousand years ago. Massage is applied to ease pains, reduce swellings, relax muscles and to accelerate recovery from contraction and sprain resulting from injury. Contrary to popular belief, massage does not prevent weakening of muscle strength. It is a very old method for relaxing and recreation. We offer to you the oil massage with the Turkish bath (hamam) culture.

Face Mask
Ağa Hamamı apply face mask to clean face after Hamam. Skin pores will be clean and open in the hamam. if you get face mask, your face will be soft and cleaner.

While you exit the hamam, we change your pestemal and towel, then you go into your room and put on your clothes. We also recommend you to let your soul have a rest at our oriental corner with a Turkish tea.


WEB SITE : Ağa Hamamı

E-Mail :
Phone : +90 212 249 5027

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Kadırga, Fatih - İstanbul Turkey

GPS : 41°00'19.6"N 28°58'04.6"E / 41.005444, 28.967944

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The bath gets its name from the neighborhood it is located. Yahya Pasha bin Abdulhay, a vizier of Sultan Bayezid II period, had this bath built. He also served as the Grand Seignior of Anatolia and Rumelia. He was the father of renowned raider commander Bali Bey. He died in 1505 or in 1508.

He also donated for the needs of these works. Kadırga Turkish Bath today serves to both sexes. It is written on its gate and inside the bath that it was build Egyptian Governor Yahya Pasha in 1741. It was repaired twice in 1948 and 1952.

It was build out of rubble stones and bricks. In men’s section, a three domed tepidarium is reached after a square designed single domed changing section. Caldarium with three iwans and two private cells is reached from tepidarium. Ladies’ section that cannot be entered is supposed to be in the same design.


WEB SITE : Kadırga Hamamı

E-Mail :
Phone : +90 212 518 1948

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BÜYÜK HAMAM since 1533

Kasımpaşa, Beyoğlu - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°02'00.2"N 28°58'06.5"E / 41.033389, 28.968472

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If you are looking for a local hamam turkish bath taste here we are waiting for you. Buyuk Hamam is almost 500 year-old historical turkish bath located just in the heart of the town; istanbul and turkish bath means “Kasımpaşa Büyük Hamam”

Büyük hamam was built in 1533 by Sinan the architect in Kasımpaşa. It is historical old turkish bath that still keeps traditional way.

There are spacious and bright changing places in both women's and men's sections. There is a large and modern swimming pool in the Hammam. This pool is only serving to the men and can be used by paying an extra fee. The magnificence of the bathhouse is unfolded by the 60 marble basins inside.


WEB SITE : Büyük Hamam

E-Mail :
Phone : +90 212 253 4229 / +90 212 238 9800

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Friday, May 12, 2017


Cağaloğlu, Fatih - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'38.6"N 28°58'32.1"E / 41.010722, 28.975583

 photo cagaloglu_hamam117.jpg


The Cağaloğlu Hamam, constructed in 1740-1741, is the last one of the biggest hamam to be built during the Ottoman Empire. It was constructed in Istanbul Fatih, in Alemdar, on Hilal-i Ahmer street as a çifte (double) public hamam to bring revenue for the library of Sultan Mahmud I the first situated inside the mosque of Ayasofya.

When we take a look at the names of the head architects of that time we can say that it was begun by Süleyman Ağa finished by Abdullah Ağa. It is the last example of its kind to be built in Istanbul and is a successful hamam that is still operational in our time. All the architectural beauty of the structure has been kept until today. The hammam still serves as a double bath.

The palace of Nevşehirli Groom Ibrahim Pasha was burnt in 1740 so Cağaloğlu Bath was begun to be constructed in the place of the palace. The entrance of women is placed on the bath street and men’s entrance is on the main street. Also the bath has a feature of being one of the last and biggest baths, because Sultan Mustafa III banned to construct baths due to increase in the need of water.

It is entered through the marble door to the building. The door of the women’s section is on a side street called Hamam while the men's entrance is from the main road with two marble columns with classic stalactite capitals on both sides.

In time when the street was elevated, the men's section is reached by a staircase of 10 steps. The architecture of the door is contrary to eclectic Turkish style. There is an original inscription with a verse of Koran, above the entrance door. On the tablet above the door is a long inscription of 7 lines and 28 verves.

The changing rooms of the men's section are quite spacious and bright. Baroque styled fountain pool in the same section is very striking. There are eight marble columns with graven tops, four cubicle spaces and octagonal middle stone in the square planned hot room (sıcaklık). The hot cubical space is used as sauna at the present. Cold and hot sections were made different way, away from the classical Ottoman architecture, the baroque- style was used in these sections.

In men’s part, dressing section is covered with a large dome but cold section is covered with a small dome. Hot section is covered again a large dome, in the middle of the hot section there is a central stone (göbektaşı) and around it there are many basins (kurna) and halvet. In the middle of the building of bath, a spacious pool which was made of one piece of marble and fountain in the pool which has three floors are placed, these are so beautiful.

The domes are supported by arches and columns. There are eight arches on eight marble columns supporting the dome in the sıcaklık. In the center is the marble göbektaşı, surrounded by halvets in the four corners and three sofas in between. The sofas are covered with semi domes. There is a square garden between the undressing room of the womens' section and the camegah of the mens' section.

The beginning of the camegah and the soğukluk is different from classis plans. The sogukluk is also separated by two columns into three sections. In the middle is a dome. The sıcaklık is the same as in the mens' section. The high and wide camegah is joined to the large dome by segmented corner trumpet-like vault panels. In the middle is a pool with a waterjet of great artistic value.

The windows are placed between the vault panels in threes. On the top of the dome is a lantern for illumination. There is a şirvan in the camegah with rooms for undressing. The soğukluk is entered through a double door from the camegah and is covered with seven barrel vaults and a half sphere small dome.

Cağaloğlu Bath was built three hundred years ago and it has been still standing today also serving to a large number of local and foreign tourists as a double bath. Men’s part is open from 8 to 10, while women’s part is open from 8 to 8. There is a restaurant-bar at the entrance of the men's section. Reservation required for dinner.

According to your wishes, you can use your own materials or materials found here. In addition, you can both see a historical structure and spend time in the beautiful bath.

These double baths in which only the changing-rooms have been changed since 1969-1971 now consist of two parts, one of women and the other for men in a 2834 sq.m area.


WEB SITE : Cağaloğlu Hamamı

E-Mail :
Phone : +90 212 522 2423 / +90 212 522 2424
Fax: +90 212 512 8553

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Tophane, Beyoğlu - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'34.2"N 28°58'49.6"E / 41.026167, 28.980444

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According to the history books he was originally from Italian Origin, once a slave on board a ship over which he eventually became Captain assuring his rise to fame and fortune. He was one of the 16th century’s Greatest Admirals who played a Key Role in The Ottoman Fleet’s Mediterranean Victories due to his keen intelligence and navigational skills.

Mimar Sinan the legendary Architect of that period was commissioned by “Kılıç Ali Paşa” to build the Hamam to withstand the ravages of the sea and time. The large light, Magnificient Dome above the Camegah (relaxation area) is 14 metres across and 17 metres high one of the largest single domes built by Sinan in 1583.

The sympathetic and painstaking restoration over 7 years retained many of the original features including the 2 doors leading from the reception and relaxation area into the warm areas.

The features of the Külhan (Chimney/exhaust), the leaded domes and the glass elephant eyes along with brick by brick repointing, original Kurnas and some carved stone and marble slabs found during excavation have been retained and used within the premises adding to its extreme historical beauty and interest.

The Hamam Ritual

"Scrub" without soap is performed by a man/woman called a Tellak/Natır. A technique that requires experience so that no ‘skin scrapes’ arise. Many of these families pass this tradition from father to son, and can trace their origins in this profession a long way.

The job is one performed with the attitude of honour and dignity, hence the great pride they have for doing the job exceptionally well and receiving a tip that demonstrates your approval and pleasure. Tellak/Natır will then rinse off with warm water and start the Köpük (bubbly soap wash). No massage is done so no joints are put under strain of any kind.

Relaxation and changing area. Large sofa’s tables and chairs allow Hamam guests to relax after their treatment in the serenity and splendour of this high domed area that receives and directs guests to their changing rooms and Hamam treatments.

The Hamam is used to restore energy and vitality to the body by reducing the toxins, and allowing the skin to breathe again. For some time after the treatment the body will continue to detox. It is the Cemagah area that allows you to sit, relax and enjoy the serenity of this building, drink, have a light snack before getting dressed and continuing your daily routine.

To compliment and complete our Hamam Complex, we have a Massage area where experienced professionals can give you a fabulous signature massage to leave you feeling well balanced and energetic.

The Cafe & Retail Shop
Offer local Turkish drinks and fresh daily snacks of the season, to restore your vitality before you continue your journey or visit our Hamam for a traditional treatment. We keep a limited range of items, many exclusive to us as they were made for our use in the Hamam. Interesting and useful, we hope to keep interest high with our minimalist approach allowing you to browse at leisure.


WEB SITE : Kılıç Ali Paşa Hamamı

E-Mail :
Phone : +90 212 393 8010
Fax : +90 212 393 8001

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Mahmutpaşa, Fatih - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'43.5"N 28°58'12.0"E / 41.012083, 28.970000

About 250 metres down Mahmut Paşa Yokuşu, we come to a turning on the left where we see an imposing domed building. The hamam, built in 1466 (871 A.H.), is located on the Mahmud Paşa highway leading up to the mosque. This was originally part of the Mahmut Paşa Complex, and, as always in these interdependent pious foundations, its revenues went to the support of the other institutions in the complex.

It consists of an entrance hall with latrines, a cold-room (soğukluk) and a hot-room (sıcaklık). The soğukluk is a truly monumental room covered by a dome with spiral ribs and a huge semidome in the form of a scallop shell; on each side are two square cubicles with elaborate vaulting.

The hararet is octagonal with five shallow oblong niches, and in the crossaxis there are two domed eyvans, each of which leads to two more private bathing cubicles in the corners.

The entry to the baths is adorned with a grand muqarnas portal beyond which the entrance hall looms large with its tall dome measuring 27 meters in diameter. Entering the smaller cold-room under a demi-dome, the square space with two eyvans and private bathing cells (halvet) is covered with a whorl dome.

Like most of the great hamams, it was originally double, but the women’s section was torn down to make room for the neighbouring han. We enter through a large central hall (17 metres square) with a high dome on stalactited pendentives; the impressive size of the camekân is hardly spoiled by the addition of a modern wooden balcony.

The following hot room has an octagonal navel stone (göbektaşı) at its center under a dome pierced with lights that sits on eight piers. It has five eyvans with taps and basins between the piers and two other eyvans give access to private cells at the four corners of the chamber.

Like all of Mahmut Paşa’s buildings, his hamam is a very handsome and well-built structure. For a time it fell into disuse and then served as a storage depot, but it has been restored and now serves as a market hall.

A han stands today on the site of the women's section that was demolished. The remaining men's section survived damage by fire in 1755 and was restored in 1955.


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Monday, May 8, 2017


Edirnekapı, Fatih - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'43.8"N 28°56'11.6"E / 41.028833, 28.936556

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It is reported that Sultan Süleyman, the Kanuni, had constructed two large mosques and  education complexes, one in Üsküdar and one in Edirnekapı, ­ naming them after his daughter, Mihrimah Sultan, born to Hürrem Sultan. The interesting thing related to those historical works is that, while the sun is rising behind one minaret of the Mihrimah Sultan Mosque in Edirnekapı, the moon emerges between the two minarets of the mosque in Üsküdar. Mihrimah is a Persian word, meaning “sun and moon”

The  historical Mihrimah Sultan Mosque, located in Edirnekapı, as a part of the Mihrimah Sultan Mosque Education Complex, was, according to historical literature, built between 1562 and 1565 in the form of a double Turkish Bath, according to a design which was common in the classical period. The Mihrimah Sultan Turkish Bath  has a significant role in Turkish bath culture.

Through the mysterious historical background, it is reported to have many health benefits. Today, having undergone transformations, it has become  an essential part of our social and cultural lives. Turkish Bath for centuries, has become a part of our lives, from the point of a healthy lifestyle. Turkish Bath is known to be curing colds and asthmas, preserving the youth and freshness of the skin.

It is a significant requirement for a Turkish Bath that it must be healthy, clean and at necessary temperature. Infrastructure is very important in a high quality Turkish Bath. Without sacrificing quality, you may just visit Mihrimah Sultan Bath in order to enjoy the pleasure coming through the mysterious depths of history.

In Turkish lifestyle, bathes are not just a place to wash up, but also a center for medical, social and cultural activities. Use of water, one of the essential needs of living things, for medical purposes, caused construction of baths, spas or similar facilities. The Turkish Baths, being one of such structures, particularly satisfies bathing and cleansing requirements of the people. In addition to this,  the architectural construction of baths changed according to dominant religion and social life.

The word Turkish Bath (Hamam) means bath in Arabic (Hammam) and hot in Hebrew (Hamam). Hamam, could shortly be defined as “a place dedicated to washing up, cleaning and healing”

One  of the structures of Turkish civilian architecture, which is important but not sufficiently emphasized, is Turkish baths. They are very important with regard to Turkish cultural history. They imitate mosques with their domes and other design elements.

The interior design and components of these facilities  may be very simple or complicated. Today, there are many Turkish bath ruins dating back to either pre-Ottoman period and Ottoman period.

The Ottomans, caring for the traditions of the Muslim states before them, started constructing public benefit facilities everywhere after they were  autonomous. The important parts of the internal design within the Turkish Baths, which have a special design, are generally dressing rooms, drying and towel changing room and bathing room.

Turkish Bath has a prominent place in the Ottoman culture, in literature, language or daily life. Women and men go to Turkish baths for  washing up.  They are important for socialization of women. There are such traditions as going to bath on Thursday evenings, keeping bathes open all night long the day before feasts this is preserved also today.

The benefits of the vapor bath was known centuries ago. Today,  vapor baths are considered to be a suitable method for  cleaning skin and body, discharging toxins, accelerating blood circulation, stimulating the immune system and to support a holistic physical and mental health. Vapor baths  provide a relaxation. The problems related to muscular pains or arthritis are healed due to relaxing effect of  heat.

The heat also diminishes pains and inflammation. People with asthma and allergic problems have some healing for their respiratory problems since heat expands air  passages. Heat cannot alone treat colds,  but it reduces congestions and helps for a fast recovery. Vapor baths increases the blood flow in the skin and accelerates sweating.

An adult sweats about 1 liter per hour in the Turkish Bath. A good sweating  removes the dirt and dead skin layer, and provides the skin with a healthy brightness. Acute liquid loss causes a reduction in the body water weight. Since this is a temporary condition,  the body will recover its water content by  taking liquids again.

Heat is a treatment agent in many cultures. All functions of the body depends on chemical reactions, which are directly influenced by temperature. This situation is related to its influence on our tissues and health.

Turkish Bath is known to  be helpful for following recoveries :

Colds and asthma related to respiratory system, It is known to be helpful for a fresh skin, In the process of sweating, vapor effectively cleanses the toxins on the surface of the body, Vapor improves the vascular flow, and increases the oxygenation in the cellular level, Vapor bathes are very much effective in the process of removing fats and toxins, Increases blood circulation, Increases metabolic activity, Provides a fresher skin,  Eliminates muscular stress and pain, removes joint blockages, Supports the immune system, Increases lymph system cleansing, Mitigates stress and is relaxative, Mitigates sinus blockings due to cold, asthma or allergic conditions, The heat released by vapor baths is among the treatments used against cancer and infection diseases nowadays.

Such humid and  warm methods  as Turkish Baths and vapor baths are proven to be therapeutic for centuries  in many cultures. Perhaps, the most  interesting example is the encounter of modern therapy with the ancient treatments. Modern treatment methods also employ vapor for treating many ailments. But, Turkish Baths not only provide you with a good vapor, but also with traditional and new treatments, which help them survive centuries. So far, taking bath in Turkish Baths  is aimed for purification, beauty and body tonification.

People also visit these places to recover. Traditional “hair removal”, “bath glove rubbing” and “foam massage” are the most prominent features of a Turkish Bath. In addition to those, clay, seaweed or mud are  other agents used in baths. Herbal remedies (mashed or powder herbs, or honey) are also used. In short, Turkish Baths do not only offer you a cleaning and bath glove rubbing experience, but also with a bodily and spiritual purification, a holistic therapy, massage therapy and beauty. These are medical, social and cultural facilities.

All  ornaments (gold, jewels etc.) and glasses  should be removed. Metal absorbs heat excessively and influences capillary veins, also causing skin rashes and irritation. Contact lenses may cause eye irritation, so they must be removed before starting to bath.

Starting a bath with the stomach full  may cause health problems, so one must stop eating and drinking before starting to wash. Any food taken before bath causes a stress in the circulation system. If you had a big meal, you must wait for one or two hours before starting to wash (as in the case of exercising). In addition to that,   taking a hot bath with a totally empty stomach is not recommended. Turkish Baths consume your energy, as in exercising.

Some people may suffer nausea or fainting. Because of this, also taking into account the symptoms of your body, consider a lower temperature bath with a shorter time. Also, if you feel physically tired, avoid taking a Turkish Bath. Turkish Bath and hot is not good when you are on alcohol. It could even be dangerous.

The customer undresses in the allocated room, wears the waist cloth or short and proceeds to heated platform, sauna, pool and Jacuzzi section. In order to enjoy the mystery of the history and wash up around the large heated platform in the center, we offer you private rooms and halls including marble basins. The customer will feel himself / herself relaxed and peaceful. Our experienced personnel will offer you a customer focused service. You can ask these services from our personnel (glove rubbing and massaging on the heated platform, helping you to wash up after massage etc.)

After sweating up on the heated platform or sauna, the customers are applied a dry massage. After glove rubbing, a foam massage is provided. In the end, after drying up, you can rest in your private rooms.


WEB SITE : Mihrimah Sultan Hamamı

E-Mail :
Phone : +90 212 523 0487

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.


Üsküdar - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'04.8"N 29°01'18.2"E / 41.018000, 29.021722

 photo atikvalide_hamam101.jpg


The Atik Valide Sultan Bath House is right next to the Üsküdar Municipal Building on Üsküdar Square, Hakimiyet-i Milliye Avenue, which runs perpendicular to the seaside.  It also known as Nurbanu Valide Sultan Hamam, which takes the name from the founder. The hamam is built on Eski Topbaşı Road, which also gives another name to the bath, in Üsküdar.

The bath was built for providing income to the complex; however in many other examples in baths, the bath was sold to a private owner; is not belonging to the Waqf anymore. It is a part of a complex but physically it is independent from the complex.

For a long time it was used as a carpenter atelier, but then it was transformed into a bath again. There is no inscription but according to some sources it was built simultaneous with the complex in 1577-79, but according to M. Nermi Haskan's book on baths, it was built in 1583.

The Atik Valide Sultan Bath was known to be in ruins until 1985 and was restored in this year. For a long time it was used as a carpenter atelier, but then it was transformed into a bath again.The hamam is a small one among other Sinan baths. The authenticity is lost by many interventions. Basically, using the place as a carpenter atelier damaged the space. Later interventions, for covering the damaged walls are improper.

Today the bath is a colorful one with lack of original details. The dressing rooms are painted and covered with improper colors and imitative coverings. This causes the loss of bath comprehension. In women part, the original roof in the dressing part is lost and is capped by a reinforced concrete roofing.

This double bath, built for Nurbanu Validei Atik Sultan, was open for public use until 1917. Following its transfer to private ownership, it was restored and reopened as a shopping centre known as Mimar Sinan Çarsısı.

The western façade of the building was shaved off when the street was widened and during this process, the eastern section of the hamam was also torn down and a reinforced concrete structure added added to this part. The bath house is now open to visitors every day of the week except Sundays.

Located to the west of the complex, the baths are composed of a symmetrical arrangement of rectangular units along the northeast-southwest axis. Entered from the northeast, the dressing space is connected to the cold rooms. These are roofed in the center by domes with pendentives and on the sides by mirror vaults.

The hot rooms, located further to the southwest, are roofed by domes. The water storage unit is a rectangular, barrel-vaulted structure attached to the southwest side of the hot rooms. Following a period of use as a wood workshop, the bathes were renovated by the General Directorate of Religious Endowments. Today, the dressing spaces house shops.


WEB SITE : Valide Atik Hamamı

Phone : +90 216 334 9158

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Doğancılar, Üsküdar - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'28.1"N 29°00'43.8"E / 41.024472, 29.012167

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The Old Hamam was built towards the end of the 15th century for the purpose of generating revenue in order to support the Rum Mehmet Paşa Mosque in Üsküdar. The men’s section is located on Doğancılar Street and the women’s section is located next to the Hüsrev Ağa Mosque.

It has also been known as the Historical Şifa Hamamı (Historical Cure Bath) and is a remarkable structure whose original shape has been protected through the ages.

One enters into the men’s section of the historical bath through a hall covered with marble pavement. The hall leads to the Camekan, a court made of wood surrounded by small individual changing rooms.

In addition to the changing rooms located on the left side, there are changing rooms upstairs. In the entry of the Halvet, a very hot bathing cubicle within the bathing complex, there are two water vessels made of marbel.

On the oppside side of the halvet are seven shower baths, three of which are open and are internally covered by a half-domed vault, and four of which are covered with a full-domed vault. Furthermore, the bath is covered by a large dome as well as a modest navel stone (göbek taşı) which draws the attention of visitors under the dome of the Old Hamam.

We have learned from an advertisement published in a newspaper in September 12, 1860 that the Historical bath was transfered to a single owner, and from another source, it we learn that it was also renovated.

This bath is not in contradiction with Ottoman Architectural style. In particular, it has been serving for visitors, the great majority of whom are Turkish citizens.


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Beyazit, Fatih - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'35.2"N 28°57'41.5"E / 41.009778, 28.961528

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The Bayezid II Hammam dates back to the 16th century, when Sultan Bayezid II commissioned it as part of the complex around the nearby Beyazit Mosque. In recent decades the hammam had fallen into disrepair, but it was restored as part of Istanbul University in 2015.

This hammam is also known as the place where rebel leader Patrona Halil worked as a bath attendant. His bloody uprising became the subject of several works by Orientalist painter Jean Baptiste Vanmour, and it is seen as marking the end of Sultan Ahmet III's Tulip Era.

The Beyazit Hamam is located in Istanbul's Beyazit district on Ordu Street. The structure has separate sections for both men and women. The entrance door of the women’s section is on Kimyager Derviş Paşa Street and the door of men’s section is on Ordu Street.

One enters the men’s section from the camekan, a court surrounded by small individual changing rooms roofed by a dome. From there, one passes into the ılıklık (lukewarm section), where four bathrooms covered by small domes and a cleaning room draw the attention of visitors.

There are sofas which are covered by a dome and presumably each one has three kurnas (marble basin) on both the left and right sides of the ılıklık. The harare (hot section) contains halvets roofed by domes. In addition to these, there was originally a marble plinth (göbek taşı) found in each of the four corners of the harare; however, these have not made it into our times.

The women’s section of the hamam is similar to men’s section that the water well that meeted of need of water. The water well responsible for meeting the water needs of the hamam is located near the women’s section behind the Central Library of Istanbul University.


As the Bayezid II Turkish Hammam Culture Museum it displays many items relevant to the Turkish bath, such as copper jugs, water bowls, towels, and bath shoes. Helpful texts in Turkish and English explain the origins and history of Turkish baths in Istanbul, as well as the spread of Turkish baths to Western European cities in the 19th century.

Some archaeological finds discovered during construction at Istanbul University are also displayed in the museum, including pieces from several Byzantine churches and a relief from the Forum of Theodosius.


WEB SITE : Turkish Hammam Culture Museum

E-Mail :
Phone : +90 212 444 0000

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Zeyrek, Fatih - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'05.2"N 28°57'22.8"E / 41.018111, 28.956333

The Çinili Hamam is the most eminent hamam located on Itfaiye Street in Istanbul's Fatih district. It was built by Mimar Sinan during the second quarter of the 16th century to generate revenue for the Hayrettin Paşa Madrasah and its tomb. The Hamam is also called “The Zeyrek Çinili Hamam” and “The Hayrettin Paşa Hamam.” It took its present name from the İznik tiles covering its walls which have not made it to the present day. After two large fires in 1782 and 1833, it was repaired and transfered to an individual owner.

The camekan of the double-bath styled Çinili Bath is not in contradiction with Classical Ottoman architecture; it is covered by a large dome. There is a pool with a fountain in the middle of the camekan, which is thought to have been a gift by the Shah of Iran. A court surrounded by small individual changing rooms and covered by a dome has been established in the middle of the hamam.

The changing rooms of the hamam are located upstairs and they passfrom the camekan into the ılıklık (lukewarm section) which is covered by an arched roof. Later, four keseliks, a type of bathing cabin used for exfoliating the skin, have been added to the ılıklık. From the ılıklık, one continues to the harare (hot section) through a passageway.

While walking through the passageway, a bathroom covered by five domes draws the attention of visitors.There are four halvets (a very hot bathing cubicle within the bath), three sofas (halls), and a marble plinth (göbek taşı). There are also two verses, each written in Persian, on the doors of halvet.

For Charles White, writing in the early 1840s, the “Tchinelly Hammam” was “one of the neatest and most picturesque in the city”. Zeyrek, close to the imperial Fatih Mosque and the Valencian Aqueduct, was a fashionable quarter with handsome wooden houses and views to the Golden Horn.

Today it is a rough-and-tumble area, whose houses are home to poor immigrants from the east, and the baths are shabby, if picturesque. Gone is the portico that shaded the entrances to the men’s and women’s baths. In its place butchers hang goats’ carcases. But, inside, Sinan’s domes and geometry still work their magic.

Sinan built the baths in the 1540s for Barbaros Hayrettin Pasha, known to the West as Barbarossa, a former corsair who became the first naval commander to be honoured by the Sultan with the title of Grand Admiral and Governor-General of the Islands. The navy was close to Sinan’s heart: in winter, while the Janissaries rested, it was the skilled galley slaves who did his building work - many earned their freedom when projects were completed.

In the “hot room”, a few of the tiles that gave the hammam its name can still be seen: panels of hexagonal Iznik tiles, their glaze encrusted with lime from dripping whitewash, and a row of tiles inscribed with lines of sensual Persian verse comparing the “beauties” therein to those of paradise.

The Çinili is a classic double hammam, for men and women. Leading back from the street is a sequence of domed halls, side by side: first the disrobing halls, then a wide, warm anteroom, and finally a hot room, marvellously austere but for the delicate pie-crust arches that support the dome and vaults.

Nearby there was a deep well, filled in long ago, from which the water for the hammam was drawn by horses. But behind the baths you will still find the chambers of the külhanbey, the legendary league of stokers.


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Bağlarbası, Üsküdar - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'11.2"N 29°01'41.8"E / 41.019778, 29.028278

 photo cinilihamam_uskudar125.jpg


The Çinili Hamam was built in 1640 as part of a mosque complex ordered by the Valide Sultan Mahpeyker Kösem, wife of Sultan Ahmet I (r. 1604-1617) and mother of Sultan Ibrahim I. It was built as Çinili Mosque, library, police office and hamam. Çinili hamam was made for Çinili Mosque’s construction workers. The tiles had been stolen by the burglars. But Hamam’s owners were sticked to its original concept as using blue tiles. Hamam has still its own charm.

Mahpeyker Kösem Sultan was one of the most powerful women of the Ottoman 17th century and gained unprecedented influence in political decision-making when acting as regent, which she did three times, for her son Sultan Murad IV, and her grandson Sultan Mehmed IV. She made enemies as well as allies and was murdered in 1651 at the age of around 70.

Çinili Hamam has a natural heating system. It’ s heated by a boiler in the middle of two domes using woods for heating. It s using approxiamately 1 tons per months in winter and vapour throwing away by the aim of chimneys called "tüfeklik". Çinili Hamam has many differences seperated from the others with its 370 domes. The holes at the bottom of the dome provides sun light getting into the Hamam. In hot days; the lanterns is demounted and provided air to get into the intern area.

Her complex has been divided by modern roads; the baths stand at the junction of Çavuşere Caddesi and Çinili Hamam Sokağı. Taxi drivers may better understand Bağlarbaşı. It’s a 5 minutes drive from the Üsküdar Iskelesi.

This is a double bath, with separate sections for men and women. There are separate sections for men and women and a fountain at the entrance. Each has two central domed areas, one for the central room and the other acting as a large vestibule for relaxing. The name Çinili (tiled) apparently comes from the quantitities of Iznik tile that decorate both the mosque and the men’s bath, though I have seen neither.

The vestibule has been extensively remade to include small changing rooms on two levels. These have their own charm, but any sense of a gracious space under the dome has been lost along with any original tile - an effect not greatly helped by a quanitity of new, bathroom looking tile, cheap plastic patio furniture, and a space heater. The last is an unfair complaint on a cold day; like most 17th century buildings, this isn’t equipped with central heating.

Around the main domed room are a series of small alcoves alternating with small chambers. These house the faucets and basins which bathers themselves control. These are elegant marble, possibly 17th century, and the rooms are high ceilinged with niches for one’s peştemels (special hamam towels) and other bathing equipment. One of these small chambers is now a sauna; it’s bare-bones but hot and the wood is fragrant. The hamam is very clean and provides plastic flipflops.

There is a usual array of bathing attire. There is a kese (scrub) and soap and massage service, which is administered by one of several employees. The habits of the bathers range from social to serious; some are there to take care of their nails and hair as well as their skin. Clipping and filing is a public activity, but shaving goes on as quietly as possible, usually in a corner. Having a complete wash, which means nudity, also was done discretely, and a clean peştemel or bathrobe donned afterward.

On arrival, guests are guided into their own lockable changing room and given a pestemal, slippers and individual soap.They are then led to the main area which has a large marble slab in the middle and small rooms off to the side with small basins. There is also a sauna available for guests' use.


Bubble Massage
Oil Massage for Women

Open each day of the week.The opening days are also including offical holidays and festivals. In case you are more than 20 people ,we are able to help you for discount.
In case you are more than 20 people ,we are able to help you for discount.

For Men : 07:00 - 22:00
For Women : 08:00 - 19:30


WEB SITE : Çinili Hamam

E-Mail :
Phone : +90 216 553 1593 / +90 216 334 9710

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.