Thursday, January 12, 2017

NEZAHAT GÖKYİĞİT BOTANİK GARDEN

Ataşehir, Dudullu - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 40°59'48.5"N 29°07'06.9"E / 40.996806, 29.118583

Nezahat Gokyigit Botanic Garden / Atasehir - Dudullu photo ngokyigit_botanic110.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanic Garden (NGBB) provides a public service, funded by the Ali Nihat Gökyiğit Foundation (ANG Foundation),to preserve plant diversity, promote education and especially through exhibitions to demonstrate the crucial importance of plant diversity. The Garden is located on the Anatolian side of İstanbul, at the intersection of two motorways, one coming from the Atatürk and Fatih Sultan Mehmet bridges over the Bosphorous and the Anatolia motorway to Ankara.

The Botanic Garden is 32 hectares consisting of eight islands of land formed by the motorway intersection and the slip roads. The land is leased from the General Roads Directorate to the ANG Foundation until 2025. In addition to being a research, training and education centre, NGBB has established an attractive amenity area  for people living nearby which providesa 12% increase in green area to the city of Istanbul.

To commemorate his late wife, Nezahat Gökyiğit, in 1995 Ali Nihat Gökyiğit started a planting and reforestation plan on a 35 hectare area of land at the motorway intersection which was leased from the Roads Directorate. First, the area was cleared of debris created by the motorway construction and the soil improved prior to approximately 50,000 trees and shrubs were planted.It was officially opened to the public as a Park in 2002, but as its function changed, in 2003, it became the Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanic Garden (NGBB).

CENTRAL ISLAND
The main entrance and administration buildings are located on this Island together with the plant propagation and nursery areas, (which are not open to the public). Here visitors can find the bulbous plant collection, rock, crevice, hedged, dry, halophytic and desert gardens. There is also a pergola, perennial border, fruit and vegetable garden. Attractive water features of this area include a cascade from the gazebo, two large ponds and water lily pools. An area behind the Education building displays native Turkish species. A special area has been allocated where children can have a unique opportunity "hands on" gardening experience to learn about how to plant, look after and grow their own flowers and vegetables. Nearby is the commemorative dwarf conifer collection dedicated to those soldiers who died during their military service. There is an enclosed area for hens, peacocks and turkeys and another area with beehives.

Hedge Garden
In the Hedge Garden, visitors can see examples of different species which can be used to provide a hedge, including some which are not normally used for this purpose, for example Photinia serratifolia which is an attractive hedging plant. In between the hedges, flower beds show a range of Turkish native herbaceous plant species. In one of these beds (opposite the Crevice Garden), you can see the annual endemic species, Centaurea tchihatcheffi, which grows naturally in the wild only in Gölbaşı, near Ankara. Whilst in its natural habitat the attractive red flowers can only be seen between April and May, at NGBB it starts flowering in November and continues flowering, even when there is snow - which would never happen in the wild throughout the winter. Other beds contain Ferula drudeana or Echinacea purpurea.

Cacti and Succulent Greenhouse
Cacti and succulents are grown and propagated here to increase the range of plant species in NGBB and for visitors to see and study this group of plants which are not frost hardy outside in the Garden. The greenhouse was constructed in 2009 so that people with a special interest in cacti and succulent plants could grow theem and share their interest and information in this group of plants. The greenhouse was built between August and November in 2009. Planting beds with a special soil mix containing a high proportion of sand and gravel to aid drainage were used for this special group of plants.

Perennial Border
The perennial border is located near the lower pool and continues along the drainage channel. It was first planted in 2008, improved with new plantings in 2010. Here you can see a colourful display of plants which are cut back each year at the end of the growing season.

Rock Garden
A Rock Garden is an area dedicated for plants which in their wild habitat live amongst rocks and in rocky places. They are resistant to extreme conditions and can survive with a limited amount of soil and resources as the rocks protect them from the heat and grazing animals. Visitors can see a range of species on the Rock Garden which grow naturally in the wild in rocky places, either on or between the rocks along with some ornamental garden cultivars. There are almost a hundred species growing icluding ten endemics. Allium goekyigitii, Allium karacae and Allium koyuncui are amongst the endemic bulbous species. There are also a number of conifers.

Crevice Garden
The Crevice Gardenhas been constructed to provide a special habitat for plants which need excellent drainage. Roots of these plants grow deep down between the rock crevices in very little soil. The rock protects them from the sun and water evaporation caused by the wind. About 50 different species are grown in this area, six of which are endemic growing nowhere else except Turkey. One of the most important endemic species you can see here is Flueggea anatolica, a shrub which was recently discovered in southern Turkey and subsequently identified and described by a Turkish botanist Yusuf Gemici. Amazingly its closest relative is found in Central Africa.

Dry and Halophytic Garden
In recent years, increasing temperatures together with a reduction in rainfall has resulted in drier conditions which has created survival difficulties for many plants. Scientific research suggests that these conditions will increase, with the result, that if plants cannot tolerate these drier conditions, they will die. There are however some species which have adapted to survive with less water and these drought resistant plants offer us hope for the future. The aim of the Dry and Halophitic Garden is to enlighten visitors about some of these plants and to bring them to their attention. This Garden also aims to encourage research on the problems related with reduced water resources and thereby safeguard the security of our food in the future. Water is a valuable resource which we all take for granted and we need to learn to use it economically and wisely.

Information about plants which have low water consumption has recently gained greater importance. With this concept in mind, between August and October in 2007, a new Halophytic and Dry Garden was established at NGBB in Central Island. The first step was the environmental landscape construction work including providing two large isolation pools into which special soil was transported and retained before the plants could be collected and transplanted. Research work by scientists from Gazi University on the interesting and special flora around Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) in central Anatolia has been an important component of this experimental project. Many of these plants can be seen growing in NGBB where we are aiming to recreate several different steppe conditions found around Tuz Golu. Scientists have identified several endemic species and a unique flora which is able to survive severe drought conditions in sandy soil which in some places contains high levels of salt. These salt tolerant plants, (called halophytes) are able to thrive in these difficult conditions..

This Dry and Halophytic are of the Garden has six sections containing six different soil types. These are listed below together with some examples of the special plants which grow in each area.
1. Steppe soil with lime: Brought from the area around Susuzköy near Ankara.
Centaurea depressa, Iris schachtıi and Thymus sipyleus.
2. Soil with marl: Brought from Beypazarı, Acısu site near Ankara.
Acantholimon anatolicum, Centaurea nivea, Aethionema dumanii, Alyssum niveum and Astragalus densiflorus subsp. ayashensis.
3. Gypsum soil: Brought from Beypazarı, Acısu site near Ankara.
Onosma tauricum, Achillea ketenoglui, Salvia aytachii and Salsola grandis.
4. Volcanic steppe soil: Brought from Karadağ, Maden site near Karaman.
Chrozophora tinctoria, Heliotropium europaeum and Chenopodium botrys.
5. Salty soil: Brought from Tuz Gölü, Eskil Kelektome site, Konya.
Plantago crassifolia, Inula aucheriana, Salvia halophila and Limonium globuliferum.
6. Salty soil with sulphate: Brought from Tersakan Lake area, Konya.
Halocnemum strobilaceum, Juncus maritimus, Frankenia hirsuta and Limonium anatolicum.

Vegetable and Fruit Garden
Vegetables such as asparagus, tomatoes, lettuce, peppers, artichoke, aubergines and beans grow here with raspberry, blackberry and tayberries trained along the perimeter fence. Fruit trees include mulberry, cherry, peach, apple and quince as well as some herritage fruit varieties. There are also kiwi (Actinidia chinensis) and grape vines plus blueberry and redcurrent bushes.The area is not open to the public.

ERTUĞRUL ISLAND
To reach Ertuğrul Island from the Central Island visitors must walk through an illuminated tunnel under the motorway. As you walk through the tunnel, on the walls you will see a series of posters from the book published by Dorling Kindersley entitled "A Visual Dictionary of Plants" which have been translated into Turkish by Adil Güner. These illustrations show numerous details about plant life.

The name of this Island comes from the “Ertuğrul” frigate ship which sank in the open sea around Oshimo off the coast of Japan due to a violent storm in 1890. Abdülhamit II had sent the men to Japan on a mission and it was on its way back to Turkey when the storm struck. Although there were a few survivors, 587 sailors drowned. A memorial has been erected on this Island which now bears the ship’s name.

In 2005, the Japanese Sakura (Cherry tree) Foundation donated 587 cherry trees to the Garden to commemorate the 115th  anniversary of the Ertuğrul frigate disaster. In memory of all those who had died - one cherry tree for each sailor who drowned has been planted on the Island. In Japanese culture, the flowering of cherry trees is an important event symbolising love and passion and tells the good news about the coming spring.

An official ceremony was held on October 23rd, 2005 in which the Turkish Navy, the Japanese Sakura Foundation, representatives from the Japanese Embassy, the TEMA (The Turkish Foundation for Combating Soil Erosion, for Reforestration and the Protection of Natural Habitats) and ANG (Ali Nihat Gokyigit) Foundations participated. Relatives of those who had died or descendants of the few sailors who had survived also attended. After the ceremony, Ertuğrul Island was officially opened for visitors to NGBB to enjoy and in springtime many visitors come to enjoy the spectacular cherry blossom display.

Ertuğrul Island has a collection of Hydrangea species growing in the shade of several large willow trees. The willows grow in a wet area which in spring and summer is alive with croaking frogs. Sometimes terrapins can also be seen along the water margins. It is intended to leave some areas of Ertuğrul Island undeveloped for the conservation and protection of the natural flora. In spring time patches of yellow and purple iris, muscari, lupin, tulip and other native species can be seen growing wild here.

Ertuğrul Island
To reach Ertuğrul Island from the Central Island visitors must walk through an illuminated tunnel under the motorway. As you walk through the tunnel, on the walls you will see a series of posters from the book published by Dorling Kindersley entitled "A Visual Dictionary of Plants" which have been translated into Turkish by Adil Güner. These illustrations show numerous details about plant life.

The name of this Island comes from the “Ertuğrul” frigate ship which sank in the open sea around Oshimo off the coast of Japan due to a violent storm in 1890. Abdülhamit II had sent the men to Japan on a mission and it was on its way back to Turkey when the storm struck. Although there were a few survivors, 587 sailors drowned. A memorial has been erected on this Island which now bears the ship’s name.

In 2005, the Japanese Sakura (Cherry tree) Foundation donated 587 cherry trees to the Garden to commemorate the 115th  anniversary of the Ertuğrul frigate disaster. In memory of all those who had died - one cherry tree for each sailor who drowned has been planted on the Island. In Japanese culture, the flowering of cherry trees is an important event symbolising love and passion and tells the good news about the coming spring.

An official ceremony was held on October 23rd, 2005 in which the Turkish Navy, the Japanese Sakura Foundation, representatives from the Japanese Embassy, the TEMA (The Turkish Foundation for Combating Soil Erosion, for Reforestration and the Protection of Natural Habitats) and ANG (Ali Nihat Gokyigit) Foundations participated. Relatives of those who had died or descendants of the few sailors who had survived also attended. After the ceremony, Ertuğrul Island was officially opened for visitors to NGBB to enjoy and in springtime many visitors come to enjoy the spectacular cherry blossom display.

Ertuğrul Island has a collection of Hydrangea species growing in the shade of several large willow trees. The willows grow in a wet area which in spring and summer is alive with croaking frogs. Sometimes terrapins can also be seen along the water margins.

It is intended to leave some areas of Ertuğrul Island undeveloped for the conservation and protection of the natural flora. In spring time patches of yellow and purple iris, muscari, lupin, tulip and other native species can be seen growing wild here.

Olive Tree
Just inside the tunnel entrance is a huge Olive tree (Olea europaea) which was transplanted into the area alongside the small amphitheatre. This magnificent tree is actually two trees which have grown together and is many hundreds of years old, but has settled into its new home well and is producing many new shoots to replace the branches which had been cut back prior to its move to NGBB. This long-lived symbol of peace and important provider of food stands proudly in its new position in the Garden.

The Ertuğrul Memorial
The Ertugrul Memoria is located on Ertugrul Islandand lists the names of the 587 sailors who drowned when the frigate ship “Ertuğrul” sank off the coast of Japan due to a violent storm in 1890. together with those few who survived. Abdülhamit II had sent the men on a mission to Japan and it was on its return to Turkey when the storm struck. Ertugul Island has been named after the ship.

Blacksea Garden
The Blacksea Garden is specifically for plants that grow in a high humidity environment in acid soils, particularly rhododendrons and native plants from the Blacksea region of north east Turkey. The soil conditions in this area have been changed to suit the needs of these plants. Shading and misting is also provided to create the favorable growing conditions of  Blacksea woodland.

Useful Plants

Edible Plants Collection
The nutritional needs of people have played a major role in how and why plants have been identified and cultivated. Turkey is important because of its rich biological diversity and its cultural heritage. Recording the various usages of plants offers not only an opportunity to transmit information to future generations, but also to find improved ways to use such plants.

NGBB has chosen the village of Camlica near the town of Yahyali, Kayseri, and the village of Kıslak near Yayladag in Hatay, as pilot areas for establishing a representative garden of edible plants at NGBB. Edible plants are collectexd from these areas to be grown in NGBB where information about these plants including  where they are collected, how and why they are used, together with their local names. These plants are growing in Ertugul Island.

The Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection
Today, more than 6,000 plant species are being used worldwide for their medicinal value. Some 75-90% of people in developing countries depend only on these medicinal plants as a source of traditional medicine for their ailments. Herbal drugs and herbal mixtures that are commonly used and are known as “folk remedies”  also known as ethnobotany. The science of ethnobotany investigates all kinds of traditional uses of plants along with their medicinal usages. When the side effects of synthetic drugs and the interactions of different drugs with each other and other factors are revealed, many people have returned to herbal remedies that were once scorned as just “folk remedies” and today alternative medicine is more popular than ever.

NGBB aims to introduce traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants to everybody who is interested in plants, especially to the local and new residents of İstanbul as well as foreigners. The medicinal and aromatic plants found in the Garden are grown and improved with the help of NGBB staff from seed or plants collected by scientists in the wild. Some medicinally important plants that do not grow in Turkey naturally are also grown from seed.

The Medicinal and Aromatic plants garden is situated on Ertuğrul Island. The Garden has many interpretative information labels giving some botanical details and information about what the plants are used for. Our visitors can read the information found on the labels, but NGBB can take no responsibility for incorrect applications of any plant material and is for information purposes only.

Wheat and Close Relatives Collection
A collection of wheat and closely related plants have been gathered and displayed within the Beneficial Plants Collection at Ertugrul Island in 2010. The design of this garden is inspired by the evolutionary development of these plants. The collection includes the following species:

Aegilops speltoides, Triticum urartu, Triticum monococcum var. monococcum, Triticum dicoccoides, Triticum dicoccon, Triticum durum, Aegilops tauschii, Triticum aestivum

Dye Plants Collection
Herbal dyes can be found in the roots, stems, leaves or flowers. Using plants in the production of dyes is an art that dates back centuries. In 2000 B.C., it is well known that the  Chinese dyed silk fabrics with herbal indigo and a special dye called Chinese green. The madder plant, (Rubia tinctorum), known as “Turkish red” has been cultivated in Anatolia for hundreds of years and by the 1750s, this had spread as far as France. Even today, many plants are still used for their dying properties throughout Anatolia, especially in carpet and rug weaving.

The Geophyte Collection
After flowering, geophytes spend much of the year dormant underground in the form of bulbs, corms, rhizomes, or in some cases tubers. The geophyte collection at NGBB is not only the most important collection of plants in the Garden, but is probably the largest, wild collected, well documented collection of Turkish geophytes anywhere. Different species of geophytes from all over Turkey provide important information about the countries’ biological richness.

All the geophyte plants in NGBB have been recorded with an accession number onto the “BG-Base” plant database programme so that the development of each collection can be monitored. Each plant is first assigned to a family, then classified according to genus and species and arranged alphabetically. The Geophyte Collection is located in Central Island and is not open to visitors without a member of staff being present. Visitors can however view a small display of flowering specimens nearby.

Plants are displayed in raised beds made from re cycled railway sleepers with the clay pots sunk into sand. At the entrance to the Geophyte Collection there is a list showing the position of each family. Each pot has a white label giving information about who collected the plant, (the collecting number), the accession number and sometimes the provisional name of the plant. When the plants come into flower, their identity is checked by an expert and then black engraved labels are prepared.

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection
Today, more than 6,000 plant species are being used worldwide for their medicinal value. Some 75-90% of people in developing countries depend only on these medicinal plants as a source of traditional medicine for their ailments. Herbal drugs and herbal mixtures that are commonly used and are known as “folk remedies”  also known as ethnobotany. The science of ethnobotany investigates all kinds of traditional uses of plants along with their medicinal usages. When the side effects of synthetic drugs and the interactions of different drugs with each other and other factors are revealed, many people have returned to herbal remedies that were once scorned as just “folk remedies” and today alternative medicine is more popular than ever.

NGBB aims to introduce traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants to everybody who is interested in plants, especially to the local and new residents of İstanbul as well as foreigners. The medicinal and aromatic plants found in the Garden are grown and improved with the help of NGBB staff from seed or plants collected by scientists in the wild. Some medicinally important plants that do not grow in Turkey naturally are also grown from seed.

The Medicinal and Aromatic plants garden is situated on Ertuğrul Island. The Garden has many interpretative information labels giving some botanical details and information about what the plants are used for. Our visitors can read the information found on the labels, but NGBB can take no responsibility for incorrect applications of any plant material and is for information purposes only.

Village Edible and Economic plants
The villages of Camlica near the town of Yahyali, Kayseri, and Kıslak near Yayladag in Hatay, have been selected as pilot areas for establishing a representative garden of edible plants at NGBB on Ertugul Island. With the help of the villagers, edible and useful plants have been collected from these villages, identified and grown in NGBB. Information about how the plants are used by the villagers is stored on a database together with their local names.

The nutritional needs of people play a major role in how and why plants are cultivated. Turkey has a rich cultural heritage and biological diversity. Recording the different uses of plants which may vary from region to region offers not only an opportunity to record important information for future generations, but also to discover new uses of such plants.

PICNIC ISLAND
Access to the Picnic Island is through a tunnel under the motorway from the parking area in Atasehir or via a foot bridge over a slip road from Central Island. This Island was developed with the aim of reducing the pressure of the increasing number of visitors wanting to picnic especially during the warmer months of the year and at weekends. This area was opened in April 2009 and is the only area where picnics are allowed. The most important feature of the Picnic Island is the innovative Children’s Discovery Garden, “learning about nature through interactive play”.

Childrens Discovery Garden
This exciting new playground is designed for 3-9 year old children to play and have fun whilst learning about the importance of the plant kingdom for all living organisms. The main theme of the playground is "Plants are vital for all life." The playground was opened for children on the Picnic Island on the 23rd of April 2009, National Independence and Children's Day. It was a gift from The NGBB to all children. The prominent structures are a sandpit, amphitheatre, wooden house, tunnel, and fountain.

İSTANBUL ISLAND
This Island is located to the west of Ertugrul Island with access by a pedestrian foot bridge. Alternative access to the Island is possible via a long tunnel where visitors can enjoy the Gardens and Flowers of Istanbul Exhibition. The exhibition posters showing historical aspects of gardening and plants in Turkey is avaliable as a book to purchase from the Garden. Visitors entering this area from the footbridge, have a good view of the Island from the plane tree terrace.

Within the framework of the 2010 Istanbul European Culture Capital activities, an interpretation of an "18th century Istanbul Mansion Garden" has been created together with a lake representing the shape of the Bosphorous. A garden showcasing some of the plants of which grow wild in the Istanbul area have also been planted here. A large amphitheatre has been constructed which is used for concerts.

The 18th Century Turkish Mansion Garden
 This garden is one of the focal points on Istanbul Island with its courtyards, sun loggias, fountains, formal flowerbeds and sultan's tent representing a Turkish style mansion garden in the 18th century along the Bosphorous in Istanbul.

Bosphorous Lake
The Bosphorus area is an important feature of the Istanbul Island. The bosphorus has been home to many cultural influences for centuries and thus has been shaped with the characteristics of them all. A pond representing the “Bosphorus” has been built to scale together with bridges and Leander’s tower as well as the surrounding hills with flowers.

Collection of Native Istanbul Plants
A number of native species from Istanbul province can be seen on Central Island and particularly on Istanbul Island. However this is only a few representatives of the approximately 2,500 native species, (20 of which are endemic), which can can be shown in the Garden.

Exhibitions in the Tunnel Galleries
Throughout the Garden the tunnels which connect the different Islands of the Garden have been utilised as exhibition areas.

* The entrance tunnel from the car park area to the Picnic Island gives some helpful introduction to the Garden as they enter.
* The tunnel from Central Island to Ertugul Island has a series of posters which are Turkish translation of the Dorling Kindersley Plant Dictionary. It has been published as a book.
* In the longest tunnel, (120 metres long) which leads from Ertural Island there is an exhibition of Flowers and Gardens in Istanbul which shows the history of plants and the many ways in which they were used in Turkey over the centuries. A catalogue of these posters is available to purchase as a book from the Garden administration.
* The tunnel which you can enter from behind the amphitheater has two exhibitions. Photographs of some of Turkey's beautiful are flowers on one side and monumental trees growing in the Istanbul area on the other.

The Fountain
The fountain underneath the plane tree view point overlooking the 18th century Mansion Garden on Istanbul Island is representative of a traditional neighbourhood design. Constructed from travertine, it has carved relief motifs of the NGBB Iris logo on all four corners. On either side at the top are two inscriptions from the Kouran. Water from this fountain feeds the spiral pond ('copuri') on the upper terrace. There are several other fountains in the Mansion Garden.

OAK ISLAND
In collabration with Abant İzzet Baysal University, Science Faculty of Biology, Bolu acorns have been collected from Oak species throughout Turkey. These have been grown in the NGBB nursery and were planted out in 2003. A total of 36 species are present on the Oak Islands which are not open to visitors currently.

The Oak Collection
Worldwide there are about 300 oak species, the majority of which are deciduous trees, but some are evergreen woody trees or shrubs which grow mostly in the mild climates of the Northern hemisphere where large forests are often found. Oaks can tolerate dry conditions so can help prevent soil erosion. NGBB has a special interest in collecting oak species so they have a special value within the woody plants collection in the Garden. The number of Turkish native oak species is 18, and together with subspecies and varieties totals 23. Many individual oak species can be seen throughout the gardens especially on the Oak Islands which are not open to the public.

Some of the native oak species which can be seen at NGBB include :
Quercus robur ( subsp. robur, subsp. pedunculiflora); Quercus petraea ( subsp. petraea, subsp. iberica, subsp. pinnatiloba); Quercus hartwissiana; Quercus frainetto; Quercus pubescens; Quercus virgiliana; Quercus vulcanica; Quercus macranthera subsp. Syspirensis; Quercus infectoria (subsp. infectoria, subsp. boissieri); Quercus cerris (var. cerris, var. austriaca); Quercus pontica; Quercus trojana; Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis; Quercus brantii; Quercus libani; Quercus ilex; Quercus coccifera

List of non-native oak species :
Quercus agriloba; Quercus alba; Quercus castaneifolia; Quercus dumosa; Quercus durata; Quercus lobata; Quercus muehlenbergii; Quercus munzii; Quercus palustris; Quercus phillyreoides; Quercus ‘Pondaim’; Quercus rubra; Quercus streimii x pungens; Quercus sinuata

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanic Garden

MORE INFO & CONTACT
E-Mail : info@ngbb.org.tr 
Phone : +90 216 456 4437
Fax : +90 216 456 4438

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