Sunday, June 25, 2017

HAGIA IRENE MONUMENT

Topkapı Palace, Fatih - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'34.5"N 28°58'52.0"E / 41.009583, 28.981111

Hagia Irene Monument photo hagiairene117.jpg

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Hagia Irene or Hagia Eirene ("Holy Peace", Turkish: Aya İrini), often erroneously rendered in English as St Irene, is a former Eastern Orthodox church located in the outer courtyard of Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. It is open as a museum every day except Monday but requires special permission for admission.

History
Hagia Irene Monument is the only extant church from Byzantine with an atrium. The structure consists of an atrium, a narthex with three naves and an abscissa. Since Hagia Irene Church had not been transformed into a mosque after the conquest (1453), there had not been any modifications made in and out of the structure. The first Ottoman Museum had been established in Hagia Irene Church in 1846, which had been used as Military store with the pieces collected by Damat Ferit Pasha, one of the Armory marshals.

The pieces collected had been organized under two sections, namely the Collection of Ancient Pieces (Mecmua-i Asar-ı Atika) and the Collection of Armament (Mecmua-i Esliha-i Atika); and denominated as Imperial Museum (Müze-i Hümayun). The museum was moved to Tiled Pavilion (Çinili Köşk) in 1875 due to insufficient physical space. The church had been converted into storage and used as a military museum for a while in 1908. After an idle period, the building has become an organizational unit of Hagia Sophia museum.

Church
The building reputedly stands on the site of a pre-Christian temple. It ranks, in fact, as the first church built in Constantinople. Roman emperor Constantine I commissioned the first Hagia Irene church in the 4th century. From May to July 381 the First Council of Constantinople took place in the church. It was burned down during the Nika revolt in 532. Emperor Justinian I had the church restored in 548. It served as the church of the Patriarchate before Hagia Sophia was completed in 537.

Heavily damaged by an earthquake in the 8th century, it dates in its present form largely from the repairs made at that time. The Emperor Constantine V ordered the restorations and had its interior decorated with mosaics and frescoes.

Hagia Irene is the only example of a Byzantine church in the city which retains its original atrium. A great cross in the half-dome above the main narthex, where the image of the Pantocrator or Theotokos was usually placed in Byzantine tradition, is a unique vestige of the Iconoclastic art; presumably it replaced earlier decoration.

The church was enlarged during the 11th and 12th centuries. The church measures 100 m × 32 m. It has the typical form of a Roman basilica, consisting of a nave and two aisles, divided by columns and pillars. It comprises a main space, a narthex, galleries and an atrium. The dome is 15 m wide and 35 m high and has twenty windows.

Entering the church, one descends along a stone ramp to the level of the interior. At the end of the ramp, there is the rear of the church which gives the idea of a basilica, but an unusual type. The eastern dome is supported by four great arches. In this church, the plan is the transition of a pure domed basilica into a Greek-cross plan church.

The apse is a semicircular semidomed above and there are seats for the clergy. In the semidome, there is an ancient mosaic of a simple cross in a black border.  At the west, a Turkish wooden staircase leads to the galleries. The galleries and the church was used as an arsenal during the Ottoman Era.

Arsenal
Ottoman helmet, with markings of Saint-Irene arsenal, Constantinople, circa 1520. Musée de l'Armée. After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, the church was enclosed inside the walls of the Topkapı palace. The Janissaries used the church as an armoury. It was also used as a warehouse for war booty.

During the reign of Sultan Ahmet III (1703-1730) it was converted into a weapons museum. It was repaired by Field Marshal Ahmed Fethi Pasha in 1846 and became the first Turkish museum. It was used as the Military Museum from 1908 until 1978 when it was turned over to the Turkish Ministry of Culture.

Concert hall
Today, the museum serves mainly as a concert hall for classical music performances, due to its extraordinary acoustic characteristics and impressive atmosphere. Most of the concerts of the Istanbul International Music Festival have been held here every summer since 1980.

Today, Hagia Eirene hosts Istanbul Art, Cultural and Music Festivals and Istanbul Biennials. Many of the concerts of the Istanbul International Music Festival have been held here every summer since 1980. It is open to public only in festival, concert and biennal times.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Hagia Sophia Museum Administration

MORE INFO & CONTACT
E-Mail : ayasofyamuzesi@kultur.gov.tr
Phone : +90 212 522 1750 / Tel: +90 212 522 0989
Fax : +90 212 512 5474

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

DEDE EFENDİ HOUSE MUSEUM

Kumkapı, Fatih - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'11.3"N 28°58'47.0"E / 41.003139, 28.979722

Hamamizade Ismail Dede Efendi Museum photo dedeefendi_museum111.jpg

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Hammamizade İsmail Dede Efendi (1778-1846) was born in Istanbul, lived in Eyüp and studied the "ney", a type of flute. He wrote hundreds of songs and composed music for the Mevlevi dervishes and is considered one of Turkey’s best composers of classical music. Sultan Selim III was very fond of his work and had Dede perform for him on many occasions. Whilst on a pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia in 1846 he unfortunately caught Cholera and died and was buried at Mecca.

Some of his songs still remain popular today. Dede Efendi ​​is one of the biggest names in classical Turkish music. Influence of his works today as fresh as the first day. Inspired by the climate of the Mevlevi nice to hear his compositions, is not that difficult at all. Dede Efendi, one of the greatest representatives of Turkish classical music, in 1846 passed away.

Hammamizade İsmail Dede Efendi was a composer of Turkish classical music. He was born on 9 January 1778, in İstanbul, Şehzadebaşı. He started studying music with Mehmed Emin Efendi, at the age of eight. He attended rituals at Yenikapı Mevlevihanesi, a place of Mevlevi gathering. He studied with Ali Nutki Dede and learned to play ney, in Yenikapı Mevlevihanesi. He became "Dede" in 1799.

Dede Efendi gave lessons in Turkish music to Hamparsum Limonciyan who developed the Hamparsum notation, the dominant notation for Turkish music. One of the greatest Turkish composers, he has created masterpieces in all forms and modes of Turkish music. He has also developed the composite musical modes of "sultanî yegâh", "nev-eser", "saba-buselik", "hicaz-buselik" and "araban kürdî". His greatest works are the seven Mevlevi pieces for Samah. More than two hundred of his compositions are available today.

Dede Efendi Museum is in a lovely old wooden mansion that was once Dede’s home and after he died, for a time it was used as a local police station, after which it fell into total disrepair.  It became a small museum for musical instruments after being fully restored in the 1980s. When visiting here you are given a glimpse of what the neighbouring houses once looked like that have now, unfortunately, been left to rot away.

There are occasional concert’s held at the museum and located next to it is an ornate fountain dating from 1734 and was commissioned by the mother of the Grand Vizier Hekimoğlu Ali Paşa. His house and music salon in the Istanbul neighborhood of Kumkapı has been preserved and is now a museum.

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WEB SITE : Türkiye Tarihi Evleri Koruma Derneği 

MORE INFO & CONTACT
E-Mail : info@turk-ev.org.tr
Phone : +90 212 516 4314
Fax : +90 212 516 4314

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

MUSEUM FOR HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ISLAM

Gülhane Park, Fatih - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'47.8"N 28°58'44.2"E / 41.013278, 28.978944

Museum For History Of Science And Technology In Islam photo islamscience_museum116.jpg

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The Museum, which was opened in May 24, 2008, is located in the Gülhane Park (Rose Garden), in one of the most beautiful areas of Istanbul. It extends over 3500 square meters along the old palace wall, on the former stables of the Sultan's Has Ahırlar.

In front of the entrance, the visitor encounters a large globe, which is a reconstruction of one of the most important achievements of the Islamic scientific tradition. The map on the globe was constructed by order of Caliph al-Ma'mun (who reigned from 198-218 H./813-833 CE.). Using a globular projection, the map displays, with surprising accuracy. the geography of the part of the world which was known at that time.

The discovery, historical reconstruction and presentation of the Ma'mun globe, as well as the other artefacts displayed in the museum, are the work of Professor Fuat Sezgin, who in 1982 founded the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt/ Main.

Decades of intensive research in the history of Arabic-Islamic manuscripts were necessary as a preparation for the creation of the wealth of objects in the museum. Visitors to the museum can obtain a unique insight in the Islamic scientific tradition by looking at the details of the exact replicas of the scientific and technical achievements from the ninth through the seventeenth centuries. The Istanbul museum is unique in the world, because it enables the visitor to see with his own eyes the evolution of the different scientific branches in Islamic civilization.

The systematic presentation of objects from astronomy, geography, nautics, time measurement, geometry, optics, medicine, chemistry, mineralogy, physics, technics, architecture and military techniques, shows how crucial discoveries were made in Islamic civilization and were transmitted in different ways to Europe, where they were adopted, assimilated, and altered. Thus the history of science appears to the visitor as a continuous flow. This is especially clear where Arabic-Islamic innovations are displayed side by side with medieval and later European adaptations.

The most important achievements of Islamic civilization are visualized and elucidated by accompanying explanatory texts in different languages. Fortunately, the Istanbul Museum for History of Science and Technology in Islam does not follow the modern tendency to explain complicated displays by only a few lines of text. On the contrary, the visitor is invited to take time, in order to fathom the multi-faceted panorama of the history of the different sciences.

After a visit to the museum, the visitor will be motivated to deepen his study of the fascinating world of science and technology in Islamic civilization. For this purpose, a detailed catalogue of the museum in five well-illustrated volumes, has been composed by Professor Sezgin. The volumes are available in German and French and since 2007 also in Turkish.

The Istanbul Museum for the History of Science and Technology in Islam is especially attractive because of its aesthetics, the didactics of its scientific expositions, and the synergy between the visual experience and the learning process on the part of the visitor. Thus, Istanbul has been enriched by another bridge between East and West, which concerns the deep historical relationships of the scientific traditions in Eastern and Western cultures. Istanbul, European Capital of Cultures in 2010, extends a warm welcome to all visitors.

The Museum is a product of decades of intensive research, discovery, reconstruction and presentation of artefacts recorded in Arabic-Islamic manuscripts by the renowned science historian Professor Fuat Sezgin. The Museum houses a wealth of objects and exact replicas recording scientific and technical achievements from the ninth through the seventeenth centuries in astronomy, geography, navigation, time measurement, geometry, optics, medicine, chemistry, minerology, physics, architecture and military techniques.

The collection in the Museum is unique in the world enabling visitors to experience the evolution of different scientific disciplines in retrospect through the systematic presentation of objects, and showing crucial discoveries invented in Islamic civilization and transmitted in different ways to Europe, where they were adopted, assimilated, and altered. Thus the history of science appears to the visitor as a continuous flow, especially where Arabic-Islamic innovations are displayed side by side with medieval and later European adaptations.

The Istanbul Museum of the History of Science and Technology in Islam is especially attractive because of its aesthetics, the didactics of its scientific exhibits, and the synergy between the visual experience and the learning process on the part of the visitor. Thus, Istanbul has been enriched by another bridge between East and West, which concerns the deep historical relationships of the scientific traditions in Eastern and Western cultures.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Istanbul Museum for History of Science and Technology in Islam

MORE INFO & CONTACT
E-Mail : bilimveteknolojimuz@kulturturizm.gov.tr
Phone : +90 212 528 8065
Fax : +90 212 528 3999

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.