Saturday, June 9, 2018

RUMİ MEHMET PASHA MOSQUE

Üsküdar - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'28.7"N 29°00'39.1"E / 41.024639, 29.010861



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The Rumi Mehmed Pasha Mosque is an old Ottoman mosque located in a large and densely populated district of Üsküdar, in Istanbul. It was built for the Grand Vizier Rum Mehmed Pasha, who was of Greek origin. The mosque combines architectural elements of Ottoman and Byzantine styles. Rumi Mehmed Pasha Mosque is located close to the Bosphorus waterfront. One of the oldest Ottoman works in Üsküdar dating back to 1466 and 1471. It was restored in 1953.

This was built on the orders of Mehmed Paşa, who was of Greek origin, the vizier of Sultan Mehmed II, Fatih the Conqueror, in 1471. It is said that there used to be a Byzantine temple here. This was the first large mosque built by the Turks in Üsküdar. There are two rooms on each sides of its winged hall. The great Sufi Aziz, Mahmud Hüdayi, stayed in one of these rooms with his wife for a period.

Rumi Mehmed Pasha became the grand vizier (Veziriazam) of Sultan Mehmed II in 1466 and held this position until 1469 when he was executed and replaced by the former grand vizier, Mahmud Pasha. His mosque is located on a hill overlooking the Bosphorus on the Anatolian side, in the district of Üsküdar. The inscriptive plaque of the mosque, composed in Arabic, dates the building to 876 (1471).

Adjoining buildings, a madrasa, baths (hamam) and a soup kitchen (imaret) were also built in the 15th century. The madrasa is no longer extant while some walls from the baths and the soup kitchen remain. The mosque quarter is still named after the grand vizier. The side hospice (tabhane) rooms, equipped with a fireplace and shelving niches, open directly into the central hall and into each other. During the restoration, plaster was removed from the walls to reveal period decoration. The madrasa is no longer extant while some walls from the baths and the soup kitchen remain. The mosque quarter is still named after the grand vizier.

The mosque is composed of a five bay porch leading into a square central hall that is extended to the south by half a bay and four rooms flanking the central hall to the east and west. The porch is covered by domes that were rebuilt during the 1953 restoration. Its marble columns are crowned by capitals that are oval in section. Passing through the muqarnas portal, two steps lead into the domed central hall.

The semi-dome at Rumi Mehmed Paşa is carried on stalactite squinches that droop down to the corners of the walls, in tune with the six rows of stalactites crowning the mihrab. The women's prayer space, found on either side of the door upon entering, is doubled in area with wooden platforms that cross the entry with a narrow balcony. The side hospice (tabhane) rooms, equipped with a fireplace and shelving niches, open directly into the central hall and into each other. During the restoration, plaster was removed from the walls to reveal period decoration.

The dome measuring 11.15 m in diameter is carried on pendentives covers the mosque's central space. The picking, round shaped column headings, which were used in the construction of last congregation gathering place, and windows extended to the dome contrary to Turkish architecture are rather interesting. The restoration of the mosque, whose end congregation portico collapsed in 1950, was started in 1953 and finished along with the domes in 1959.

To the south, the mihrab is placed in a rectangular extension of the central hall raised by a step and covered by a semi-dome. The semi-dome at Rumi Mehmed Paşa is carried on stalactite squinches that droop down to the corners of the walls, in tune with the six rows of stalactites crowning the mihrab. The women's prayer space, found on either side of the door upon entering, is doubled in area with wooden platforms that cross the entry with a narrow balcony.

While the plan, the interior decoration, and to some extent the portico, are Ottoman in style, the mosque's exterior appearance is expressively Byzantine. Where most Ottoman mosques have used polygonal drums, the dome of Rumi Mehmed Paşa Mosque sits on a circular drum, a common feature in Byzantine churches. Placed on a square base, its load is carried on arches on three sides and a semi-dome on the forth. These thick brick arches, complete with clerestory windows, culminate above the emergent roof creating a wavy effect along the cornice line.

The arched frames of the drum windows, similarly, are extended beyond the skirts of the dome. These unusual domes are covered with lead in a manner typical of Ottoman mosques. The construction of the mosque is cut stone, with rows of brick introduced the base and drum of the dome. There is a single minaret on the northwest corner; stairs leading to its single balcony are accessed from outside the mosque.

In the mosque there are two works by the famous calligraphers, Hattat Arif and Mehmed Sami. Tombstones, including that of Rumi Mehmed Paşa, can be found to the left of the courtyard. The medresse is in ruins. The street where the mosque is located has one of the most beautiful street names of Istanbul: Eşref Saati (Lucky Moment).

Near to the mosque, the Tarihî Şifa Hamamı (Historical Medical Baths) was built to create an income for the mosque. It is the oldest baths in Üskudar and is still operational. Across from the men's section there is a fountain that was built in 1729 and is named in honor of the vizier, Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Paşa, who was violently killed in the Patrona Halil Uprising. Across from the women's section is the mosque of Hüsrev Ağa, built in memory of the head footman of the palace in 1520.

The mosque is thought to have been built by a Greek master since its general appearance resembles a church. The bath nearby the mosque is considered as the oldest bath in Üsküdar. The bath, whose operating right was transferred to a person in 1860, was restored in 1885. The madrasah of the complex was removed. The mosque combines architectural elements of Ottoman and Byzantine styles.

While the plan, the interior decoration, and to some extent the portico, are Ottoman in style, the mosque's exterior appearance is expressively Byzantine. Where most Ottoman mosques have used polygonal drums, the dome of Rumi Mehmed Paşa Mosque sits on a circular drum, a common feature in Byzantine churches.

Placed on a square base, its load is carried on arches on three sides and a semi-dome on the forth. These thick brick arches, complete with clerestory windows, culminate above the emergent roof creating a wavy effect along the cornice line. The arched frames of the drum windows, similarly, are extended beyond the skirts of the dome.

These unusual domes are covered with lead in a manner typical of Ottoman mosques. The construction of the mosque is cut stone, with rows of brick introduced the base and drum of the dome. There is a single minaret on the northwest corner; stairs leading to its single balcony are accessed from outside the mosque. In the mosque there are two works by the famous calligraphers, Hattat Arif and Mehmed Sami.

Tomb
Rumi Mehmed Paşa was executed before the completion of his mosque and is buried in a separate tomb outside the western corner of the qibla wall. The tomb is an octagonal building made of ashlar stone and crowned by a dome without windows. The interior, with the single sarcophagus of the grand vizier, is lit by an upper and lower window on each side.

The tomb is an octagonal building made of ashlar stone and crowned by a dome without windows. The interior, with the single sarcophagus of the grand vizier, is lit by an upper and lower window on each side. His relatives are buried in the enclosed cemetery behind the mosque. Kufeki stone tomb of Mehmet Pasha is behind the mosque. Tombstones, including that of Rumi Mehmed Paşa, can be found to the left of the courtyard.

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