Monday, August 21, 2017


Edirnekapı, Fatih - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'51.7"N 28°56'20.5"E / 41.031026, 28.939025


The apse determining the eastern ends of churches are the most important places of religious buildings in terms of liturgy and church symbolism. The rectangular parecclesion of Chora has been a structure the longitudinal effect of which is dominant visually as well, thanks to the rhythmic sequence of its dome, domical vault and the semi-dome of the apse from west to the east reinforced by the sequence of martyrs on the lower walls.

Except those in the tomb arcosolia, all frescoes of the chapel were got made immediately after the completion of the mosaics in the nave and in the narthexes by Theodore Metochites in 1320 and 1321.

On the other hand, the frescoes and portraits decorating the walls of tomb arcosolia were made when their owners had been buried in these tombs.

Bishop figures on the apse wall
The bishop figures are of human size and they are ordered according to their importance. The names of those saints in bishop dresses are inscribed next to their heads and they are holding closed books in their hands. Two bishop-saints who are the founders of the Byzantine liturgy are in the middle. Saint Basil is in the middle-right and on the right side of him are Saint John Chrysostom, Saint Athanasios and probably Saint Nicholas, whose name disappeared, respectively. On the left side of Saint Basil is Saint Gregory the Theologian, and Saint Cyril of Alexandria next to him.

The scene of Anastasis
It is painted on the semi-dome of the apse, which is the most important and the most remarkable place of the building. The Greek word “anastasis” means “resurrection”.

In the Byzantine art, during the ‘Anastasis’, Jesus Christ goes to the underworld (Hades) after his death, he liberates the prophets of the Old Testament who lived before him and who were held captive by the Devil, he ends the kingdom of Devil here, and pulls the people to the heaven after resurrecting them. This event is not mentioned in the gospels.

In the parecclesion of the Chora, this scene is depicted in such a manner that it covers the whole semi-dome of the apse. Jesus Christ is standing at the center of the triangular composition, inside a mandorla radiating white light and bearing yellow stars.    Inside the dark section under the feet of Jesus Christ, broken door wings and chain and lock pieces are seen. Additionally, a dark-skinned figure whose hands and feet are chained is lying. There is a sarcophagus in both sides of the dark section. Jesus Christ is pulling Adam from the sarcophagus on the right side of him and Eva from the sarcophagus on the left side of him out of their tombs by holding their hands. There is a group including the prophets of the Old Testament, namely John, David and Solomon, behind Adam, and Abel and seven persons in clergy tunics behind Eva.  Here, Adam and Eva are representing the whole humanity. The inscription on the upper part of this scene reads “Anastasis”.

The scene of anastasis on the semi-dome of the apse in the parecclesion unites with the scene of last judgment covering the upper walls of the domical vault. Exactly at the center of the wide bema arch forming the border of these two scenes is a portrait of Archangel Michael inside a medallion. This medallion, 1.21 m in diameter, is the largest portrait medallion in the parecclesion. The sphere in Michael’s left hand is inscribed with the initial letters of the words Christos Dikaios Krites, that is Christ the Equitable Judge, XΔK. He is holding a staff in his right hand. The portrait here is connected with the scene of last judgment, since one of the duties of Archangel Michael is to convey the judged souls to the heaven.

Scenes of raising
On the northern side of the bema arch is the scene where Jesus Christ raises the dead son of a widow from Nain. Together with his apostles, Jesus went to Nain and as he approached the city, he saw a dead person who was carried. The coffin belonged to the son of a widow from Nain and the woman was crying for her son. Jesus said, do not cry, before touching the coffin and saying “young man, I say to you, get up”. The young man sat up and began to talk. (Luke 7:11-15.)

In this scene, there are apostles behind Jesus Christ, who is standing and extending his arm towards the son of the widow. On the other hand, the son of the widow is in sitting position inside the coffin carried by four men. The inscription on the upper part of this composition reads, “Jesus is raising the son of the widow”.

On the southern side of the bema arch is the scene where Jesus is raising the daughter of Jairus. Jesus Christ held the wrist of the girl who was lying dead in her bed in the house of Jairus, and revived her. Thanks to this miracle, the girl sat up in her bed. The people around are watching this miracle in astonishment. (Mark 5:22-24, 35-43.)

There are six apostles behind Jesus and three women behind the bed. The old man standing at the center is Jairus.

The Last Judgment
The judgment scene on the domical vault in the east side of the parecclesion is forming the center of the Last Judgment composition that is covering the whole upper walls and the vault covering. There are literary sources stating that all human beings will be judged on the day of Last Judgment for their actions during their lives, and that they will either have an eternal and happy life in the heaven or writhe in the hell, according to the outcome of this judgment. The main literary source of scenes related to the day of Last Judgment is the Book of Revelation. Here, the rolling up of the skies, the throne set up for judgment and the judging of the souls before it, the delivery of the the dead by the seas and the lands, the lake of fire and the second life without death are described.

Scene of Deesis
Instead of reaching their gods directly, Byzantines preferred to reach them via holy persons supposedly closer to gods and able to reach them more easily. Those sacred persons who were considered as intermediaries between the god and human beings could be monks and bishops as well as saints who died for their religious beliefs especially in the first centuries of Christianity (martyrs), prophets of the Old Testament, archangels, angels and Mary (Theotokos), Mother of God. Above all, Virgin Mary, Mother of God, is thought to be the closest person to God. Virgin Mary appears in chapels, movable icons, illuminated manuscripts and special works, for she is seen as the mediator whose prayers are accepted.

The parecclesion of Chora was dedicated to Virgin Mary, the superior mediator. For the Byzantines, the second important mediator following Virgin Mary was John the Baptist, who had announced the coming of Jesus, who had baptized him and who had been his friend at the same time. Those two holy persons who had a great influence on Jesus as a mother and as a friend respectively are brought together by the Byzantine art in the scene known as the “Deesis”, and on the Day of Judgment, they pray to Jesus on behalf of all mortals.

At the center of the Last Judgment composition, Jesus is sitting on the throne of judgment, and Virgin Mary and John the Baptist are on either sides of Jesus, they are slightly turned towards him, and they are in praying position. Virgin Mary and John the Baptist are interceding on behalf of humanity. In the Last Judgment scene, the two figures behind Mary and John in emperor clothes are the archangels Michael and Gabriel. They are also participating in the scene of Deesis and interceding with Christ on behalf of humanity.

The word “Deesis” has been used since the 19th century. The scenes of Deesis that show the holiest persons interceding on behalf of people with God on the Day of Judgment are very important.

Scene of Last Judgment
The composition of the Last Judgment fresco covering the whole domical vault in the east section is circular. The impressive scene of “rolling up of the heaven” at the center of the circle, i.e. in the middle of the vault, is surrounded by the “choirs of the elect” (the choir of prophets, the choir of apostles, the choir of martyrs, the choir of holy women, the choir of saints, the choir of bishops). The scroll of the rolled up heaven in the middle of the vault is 86 cm in diameter and it is carried by an angel. It is very impressive thanks to the eye catching white color and the gold gilding.

The scroll of the heaven indicates that the heaven will be rolled up at the end of the time. The angel is rolling up and carrying the heaven over his head with two hands, and gold gilt stars, the moon and the sun are seen on the heaven that is being rolled up.

In the scene of judgment, Jesus is sitting on the throne at the center, Mary and John are standing on the right and left sides of him respectively, apostles are sitting in on both sides, and a group of angels is seen just behind Jesus. Around these two scenes, there are four clouds containing the choirs of the elect. Below the throne of Jesus, the inscription on the left side reads, “Come, you blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world”, and the one on the right side reads, “Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels”.

In the scene just below the Jesus the throne is prepared. Here, there is a closed Bible on a simple throne, and there are Cherubim on both sides. Before the throne are Adam and Eve in kneeling position. The scale just below the throne is weighing the souls. There is a small figure under the scale and two angels who are holding books.

On the other side of the scale, a lake of fire beginning at Christ’s feet is reflecting the hell seen on the pendentive. Small figures (devil) are bringing some souls into the hell.

On the southwest pendendive of the vault, lands are depicted above, and seas are depicted below. The angels at the sides have turned their trumpets towards the ground and the sea. In the land, the dead are coming out of their graves, and in the sea, fishes are expelling human organs from their mouths. This scene is largely deformed.

It is claimed that the fresco of “angel and a soul” on the northwest pendentive is the soul of Metochites presented by the Archangel Michael. An angel, whose wings are open, is standing behind a small and naked figure (soul), and he has placed one of his hands upon the head of the soul.

On the two east pendentives is the fresco of “Lazarus the beggar and the rich man”. After his death, the soul of Lazarus the beggar is placed on the lap of Abraham by an Angel. There is an old man (Prophet Abraham) sitting among depictions of trees, the soul of poor Lazarus is depicted as a little child sitting on his lap, and many souls are standing in the background.

On the southeast pendentive, a naked figure is sitting in flames, and in the lower part, pieces of gold are spilling out of two bags with open mouths. Here, the story of Lazarus the beggar and the rich man who ill-treated him during his life in this world is depicted. Whereas the rich man is writhing in pain in the hell after his death, Lazarus is seen on the lap of Prophet Abraham in a garden full of flowers. In those two scenes on the southeast and northeast pendentives of the domical vault, the good are awarded and the evil punished.

The scene on the left side of the south wall of the eastern section is divided into four parts. Each of them depicts one kind of torture in the hell with a different color. “The gnashing of teeth” is depicted at the upper left, “the outer darkness” at the upper right, “the worm that sleepeth not” at the lower left, and “the unquenchable fire” at the lower right.

Virgin Eleousa
In the depiction on the south column of the bema arch, the full-length Virgin Mary is standing on a rectangular platform, holding the child Christ in her arms, and kindly pressing her cheek to his one. Here, the emotional relationship between mothers and their sons is depicted. The monograms of Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ are next to their heads.

Only very small fragments of the fresco above the entrance on the west wall and on the west arch have survived.

The entry of the elect into paradise
At the center of the composition on the north wall of the eastern section is a gate guarded by a cherub who is holding a sword. On the right side, Saint Peter, who is holding a key, is moving towards the gate with the group of elect behind him. On the right side of the gate, the “good thief”, who is holding a cross inside the paradise decorated with trees and plants, invites them into the interior. And Virgin Mary can be seen on the left side between two angels.

Transport of the Ark of the Covenant
In the scene on the right side of the south wall of the eastern section, the transport of the Ark of the Covenant is depicted. Four priests are carrying the Ark of the Covenant, a triangular prism decorated with yellow, purple and marble-like strips, on their shoulders. The inscription at the upper left reads, “and, when Solomon built the house of the Lord, he summoned the elders of Israel in Zion.

He said that the ark of the Lord’s covenant could be brought from Zion, the city of David. And the priests took the ark of the Lord’s covenant and the tent of meeting (tabernacle)”. This ark made of shittim-wood, the interior and exterior of which was plated with gold, contains the two stone tablets on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed by Moses upon the orders of God.


Virgin Mary
The Virgin Mary portrait inside the rainbow-bordered medallion at the center of the dome, which covers the western section of the parecclesion and is 4.70 cm in diameter, is dominating the whole room.

According to the Byzantines, Virgin Mary was both the most important mediator between the humans and God, and a kind mother. Inside the rainbow-bordered medallion at the center of the large dome, which covers the whole western section and represents the heaven, are Virgin Mary and child Jesus in his arms depicted. The dome is divided into 12 segments by 12 windows providing light to the Virgin Mary figure. Those segments contain the full-length frescoes of 12 angels.

The angels, which are standing and depicted similar to one another, are holding long staffs in their right hands. Four angels (Gabriel, Michael, Uriel and Raphael) are holding a crystal ball bearing the cross and “X” signs, whereas the other angels hold their clothes with their left hands. The angels wear an imperial shawl. Each angel figure bears an inscription that reads, “Angel of the Lord”.

On the other hand, at the end of a staff held by one of the angels, the word “Hagios” (saint) is inscribed three times. The wide strips dividing the dome into segments and located between the angel figures are richly decorated with plant motifs.

The Four Hymnographers
Four hymn writers (hymnographers) are depicted on the four pendentives of the dome covering the western section. The hymns of these poets are sung especially during death rituals.

On the northeast pendentive, Saint John of Damascus, who wrote hymns for funerals, is depicted. The Arab Christian monk-priest who lived between 676 and 749 died in the monastery in Jerusalem founded by him. Here, the hymnographer saint who is depicted sitting on the armchair next to a table and writing on a scroll of paper on an elevated writing desk upon the table. Although it is not possible to read the full text, it is understood that this part contains a verse of one of his hymns: “What joy of life abideth, without the smart of woe?” The saint is barefoot and he wears a tunic, a coat and a turban. There are architectural units in the background. The inscription above his head reads, “Hagios Ioannes Damaskenos”.

On the southeast pendentive, Saint Cosmas, hymn writer, poet and bishop, is seen. Cosmas is sitting on a bench, the table of which is low, and there is a low stool under his feet. There are a penholder, an inkpot and a penknife on the table. The portrait of the saint is well-preserved. There is an open book in one of his arms, and a pen in his other hand. Architectural units are seen in the background and the inscription above his head reads, “Hagios Cosmas, poet”.

On the southwest pendentive,Joseph, 9th-century hymn writer, is depicted holding the scroll containing the Akathist Hymn, one of the most important Byzantine hymns dedicated to Virgin Mary. There are a pen, a penholder and an inkpot on the table. Again, there is a book on the elevated writing desk upon the table, and there are architectural structures in the background. The inscription above the head of Joseph reads, “Hagios Joseph, poet”, and the one on the paper scroll in his hand reads, “The forgiver of the world, o the spotless Virgin”.

On the northwest pendentive,Saint Theophanes, 9th-century poet and hymn writer who was a monk at the Chora monastery and buried here, is depicted. In the period of iconoclasm in the 9th century, he had an inscription carved on his face, and therefore he received the name of Graptus, meaning written upon.

Here, the saint is sitting at the table on a chair with a deep back and his feet are on a platform. There are writing instruments on his table, and the saint is writing in a book in his lap. The inscription above his head reads, “Hagios Theophanes”, and the one on the open book reads, “after violating the holy commandments of God, we returned to the earth again”. This verse is taken from a hymn of Theophanes sung during funerals. The furnishings seen in these scenes reflect the characteristic 14th-century medieval features.

In the Parecclesion, Old Testament stories are depicted in the frescoes on the walls between the dome and above the cornice level.

Jacob’s ladder and Jacob wrestling with an angel
On the right side of the tympanum on the north wall in the western section, Jacob’s ladder and Jacob’s wrestling with an angel are depicted. Here, while traveling to Haran, Jacob puts a stone under his head to sleep, and he dreams a ladder between the earth and the heaven, on which the angels are descending and ascending.

The inscription below left, above the head of Jacob, reads, “Taking one of the stones there, he put it under his head and lay down to sleep”, the one on the right side, between the scenes of the ladder and the wrestling, reads, “and he dreamed there...”, and the one above right reads, “he saw a ladder resting on the earth, with its top reaching to heaven, and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. There above it stood the Lord”. Virgin Mary and Child Christ in her arms are seen at the upper right corner.

Under the ladder, Jacob is depicted wrestling with an angel. This event occurred during his return from Haran. Although Jacob’s seeing a ladder in his dream and wrestling with an angel are two different events, they are depicted together in the Byzantine painting.

Moses and the burning bush
On the right side of the north wall of the western section is the scene of Moses and the burning bush. While God was speaking to Moses from within a bush, the bush was on fire, but was not consumed by the flames. An old man with a beard (Moses) is standing on the left side, and a bush is burning in flames opposite to him. There are the portraits of Virgin Mary and Child Christ inside a medallion in the bush. An angel appearing on the upper part of the bush is calling to Moses. There are hills and the Mount Sinai in the background. Below, Moses is sitting on the ground and taking off his sandals.

The inscription at the upper left corner reads, “and he came to Horeb, the mountain of God, and there the angel of the Lord appeared to him in flames of fire from within a bush”, and the ones at the lower left corner read, “take off your sandals, for the place where you are standing is holy ground” and “Prophet Moses”.

Moses hiding his face
On the north side of the arch between the eastern and western sections is the scene of Moses’ hiding his face. A standing bearded old man (Moses) holding a staff is on the left side, and his face is turned away in order to avoid the light of the burning bush opposite to him. There are the portraits of Virgin Mary and Child Christ inside the medallion in the middle of the bush. Just before the medallion, an outstretched angel is speaking to Moses. The inscription on the upper part of the scene reads, “Moses hid his face, because he was afraid to look at God”.

Transport of the sacred furnishings
On the south side of the arch between the eastern and western sections is the scene of the transport of sacred furnishings. Here, the transport of the sacred pot (stamnos) and the seven-branched candelabrum (menorah) taken from the sacred tent of meeting (tabernacle) of Jews is depicted. One of the two priests is carrying the seven-branched candelabrum with his two raised hands, and the other is carrying a pot resembling an amphora on his shoulders. A paper scroll is seen inside the pot. Assumedly, the candelabrum’s “carrying the light” is the forerunner of Virgin Mary, and the sacred “manna” inside the sacred pot is the forerunner of Jesus Christ. Manna is the food provided by God to the Jews when they were in exile in the desert.

Gathering of Solomon and the assembly of Israel
On the left side of the south wall of the western section, the gathering of Solomon and the assembly of Israel is depicted. Solomon is leading the whole tribe for the ceremonies related to the placing of the sacred furnishings in the sanctuary of the new temple. On the right side, Solomon in imperial clothes is leading the crowd before him with a censer in his hand. The inscription on the scene reads, “and the king and Israelites gathered before the Ark of the Covenant”.

Placing of the Ark of the Covenant in the sanctuary of the temple
On the right side of the south wall of the western section, the placing of the Ark of the Covenant in the sanctuary of the temple is depicted. The covenant is placed in the most holy place of the temple. The two priests on the right side are placing the ark on the covered altar table in the sanctuary.

Two cherubim are standing behind the altar table. Israelite elders are depicted before the structure at upper left, and the heaven is depicted with nested circles in the uppermost part. From here, a beam of light is shining towards the altar and Israelites. The inscription at the upper left reads, “and the priests then brought the ark of the Lord’s covenant to its place in the inner sanctuary of the temple, the Most Holy Place, and put it beneath the wings of the cherubim”.

Prophecy of Isaiah and Archangel Michael Destroying the Assyrian Army Before Jerusalem
On the south side of the western arch, the Prophecy of Isaiah and Archangel Michael’s destroying the Assyrian army before Jerusalem is depicted. Isaiah predicted that the Assyrian army that besieged Jerusalem would fail and the angel of God destroyed the Assyrian army before Jerusalem with his sword. An old man on the left side (Prophet Isaiah) is holding an open paper scroll in his left hand and pointing forward with his right hand.

The wings and clothes of Michael, who is pointed to, are flying, he is preparing to use the sword raised by his right hand, and holding the scabbard of the sword in his left hand. Assyrian soldiers are lying on the ground. A city surrounded by walls is seen in the background. There is a portrait of Virgin Mary on the spectacular gate of the city. Some words on the paper scroll held by Isaiah can be read. The complete version of this inscription should read, “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: Because you have prayed to me concerning Sennacherib king of Assyria, he will not be able to enter into this city”.

Aaron and his sons before the Altar
On the north side of the western arch, the story of Aaron and his sons before the Altar is depicted. Here, the first priests of the tent-temple established by Moses, namely Aaron and his sons are giving their offerings. Both Aaron, who is depicted as the old person in the front, and each of his two sons, who are depicted as young persons behind him, is holding a box containing the offerings. On the right side is a covered altar table inside a marble niche. Sections of buildings are depicted in the background, and the pointed beams originating from the nested circles depicting the heaven extend toward Aaron and his sons. Only two words of the inscription on the upper part of the scene can be read: “Altar” and “burnt offering”.

Virgin Mary is the central figure in the iconography of the western section of the parecclesion. The stories from the Old Testament have been interpreted as an expression, a forerunner of the arrival of Virgin Mary and thus the arrival of Jesus Christ. Those stories are on some Marian feast days. The Akathist Hymn, which has an important place among the hymns, is about death. The content of this hymn is compared with the Old Testament stories in the parecclesion.

On the walls of the parecclesion below cornices are full-length figures of martyrs (saints killed for following Christianity - military saints). Martyrs, military saints are holy persons recognized by Byzantines as mediators to reach God. Especially in the last periods of the Byzantine Empire, the portraits of the military saints were painted on the lower walls of churches and chapels.

From the south to the west, until the northeast, the wall sections below the cornices are decorated with depictions of martyrs. First, on the southeastern wall are Saint George of Cappadocia and Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki. In the medallions on the two sides of the arcosolium arch between these saints are the portraits of Saint Florus and Saint Laurus. The full-length depictions of saints are in hierarchical order: Saint Theodore of Tyre, Saint Theodore Stratelates, Saint Mercurius and Saint Procopius are depicted in armored clothes.

There is an unidentified saint next to Saint Sabbas Stratelates. Saint David of Thessalonika is sitting in a bird’s nest on top of a tree. Saint Eustathius Placidus is in military uniform. Saints Samonas and Gruias of Edessa are in martyr clothes. Saint Artemius or Saint Nicetas, whose full name cannot be read, is in military uniform. The portraits of Saint Bacchus and Saint Sergius are in medallions. On the other hand, the depiction of a saint in military uniform, a portrait of a saint inside a medallion, and the depiction of a saint on a column are unfinished.

Saints in military uniform have short tunics under their armors, and some of them carry lances and shields. Some of them are depicted with raised swords, in a raid. The saint depictions on the entrance arches of the two tomb arcosolia and diaconicon in the western section are portraits inside medallions. Saints that are not in military uniform are in martyr clothes.


Frescoes inside the niche wall and arch of the southeast arcosolium (A)
The sarcophagi of the four tomb arcosolia in the parecclesion have not survived. On the niche wall of the southeast arcosolium, there are frontal paintings of four figures standing side by side above the sarcophagus level. The two men with court and religious clothes in the middle and the two women on either sides with both court and religious clothes represent the same two persons and they are the portraits of the husband and wife buried here. However, the identities of the owners of this tomb could not be determined.

On the upper part of this niche arch, just above the portraits, inside a cornered mandorla, a half-length Jesus whose hands are open is shining. A seraph is seen on the left side, whereas the depiction on the right side is not visible due to the deterioration here. On either side of the inner wall of the arch is a half-length angel figure praying with upraised hands.

Frescoes inside the niche wall and arch of the southwest arcosolium (B)
On the niche wall, above the sarcophagus level, only the shoulders of Virgin Mary and the hand of Child Christ raised in benediction is seen, because most of the tiles of the mosaic depiction have fallen down. On the right side, Michael Tornikes, who is resting in this tomb, is depicted standing and wearing court clothes. The lower part of the figure is destroyed and only the part over the shoulders is visible. The inscription on the upper section reads, “same person, monk Makarios”.

On the right side is the figure of Tornikes’ wife, turned towards Virgin Mary and praying with upraised hands. The inscription on the upper section reads, “same person, nun Eugenia”. The feet of this figure as well are destroyed. Both figures are frescoes. The upper part of the arcosolium arch is decorated with a mosaic cross motif inside nested circles. On the left side of the inner wall of the arch is the mosaic portrait of Tornikes wearing monk clothes, and on the right side is the mosaic portrait of his wife. Since the lower parts of both mosaics are destroyed, only the parts above the waists are seen.

On the monumental marble frame of the tomb, there are archangels on both sides of Jesus, and a long inscription (epitaphios) above this composition. This tomb belongs to Michael Tornikes, the close friend of Metochites who was the “Great Constable” at the court of Andronikos II. The original decoration was made of mosaic, but it was complemented with frescoes after having been destroyed in the Byzantine period. The Virgin Mary figure at the center of the niche and the figures inside arches are made of mosaic and the two figures on the sides of niches are frescoes.

The large arcosolium in the northwest wall of the chapel (C), assumedly belonging to Theodore Metochites
In order to highlight the importance of the tomb, an arched marble frame was formed. There is a relief of Jesus at the center of the arch, and reliefs of angels with faces looking toward Jesus on either sides of the arch. The monograms of the figures on the marble indicate that they are the archangels Michael and Gabriel. The faces of the figures are quite destroyed. On the marble frames of the tomb niches in the parecclesion, the background is painted blue and the reliefs are painted yellow. There is no inscription on this marble frame stating the owner of the tomb.

The arcosolium in the northeast wall (D)
The tomb in the northeast wall has no frame. Since there are neither frescoes or mosaic decorations inside the arch, nor an inscription, the owners of this tomb are not known.


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